Estrogens and menopause: pharmacology of conjugated equine estrogens and their potential role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s

@article{Bhavnani2003EstrogensAM,
  title={Estrogens and menopause: pharmacology of conjugated equine estrogens and their potential role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s},
  author={Bhagu R. Bhavnani},
  journal={The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
  year={2003},
  volume={85},
  pages={473-482}
}
  • B. Bhavnani
  • Published 2003
  • Medicine, Chemistry
  • The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Menopause marks the start of a new phase in a woman's life that is associated with a decrease in circulating estrogen levels. Although the average age of women has increased from 50 to nearly 85 years, the average age at menopause has remained essentially constant at 50 years. Thus, women now spend nearly a third of their lives in an estrogen deficient state. This normal aging process in women is associated with increasing health problems such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease… Expand
Tissue-Selective Estrogen Complex Bazedoxifene and Conjugated Estrogens for the Treatment of Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms
TLDR
Data regarding the effects of combination conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene therapy on bone are promising in terms of the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Expand
Clinical Pharmacology and Differential Cognitive Efficacy of Estrogen Preparations
TLDR
Basic clinical pharmacology of various forms of estrogen, neuroendocrinology of the menopause, neurobiology of estradiol and estrone, and results of selected basic science and human intervention studies with relevance to identifying the best form and route of administration of estrogen are discussed. Expand
Estrogen Bows to a New Master: The Role of Gonadotropins in Alzheimer Pathogenesis
TLDR
It is suggested that the results of the WHI Memory Study are not only predictable but also avoidable by therapeutically targeting the gonadotropins instead of the sex steroids. Expand
A Comparison of the Short-Term Effects of Oral Conjugated Equine Estrogens Versus Transdermal Estradiol on C-Reactive Protein, Other Serum Markers of Inflammation, and Other Hepatic Proteins in Naturally Menopausal Women
TLDR
It is suggested that transdermal estrogen therapy (ET)/HT may be preferable to oral ET/HT because it minimizes the hepatic estrogen exposure that increases CRP and levels of coagulation markers and reduces IGF-1. Expand
A component of Premarin® enhances multiple cognitive functions and influences nicotinic receptor expression
TLDR
In middle-aged, ovariectomized rats, ∆(8)E1 is identified as a new avenue to be investigated as a potential component of HT that may benefit brain health and function during aging and indicates that specific isolated Premarin(®) components differ in their ability to affect cognition and nAChR expression. Expand
Accelerated Ovarian Failure as a Unique Model to Study Peri-Menopause Influence on Alzheimer’s Disease
TLDR
The molecular mechanisms by which peri-menopause may influence the female brain vulnerability to AD and AD risk factors, such as hypertension and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype are highlighted. Expand
Human versus non-human sex steroid use in hormone replacement therapies part 1: Preclinical data
Prior to 2002, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was considered to be an important component of postmenopausal healthcare. This was based on a plethora of basic, epidemiological and clinical studiesExpand
Complex actions of sex steroids in adipose tissue, the cardiovascular system, and brain: Insights from basic science and clinical studies.
TLDR
The concept that estrogen's interface with this system may be at the core of some of the effects on multiple physiological systems, such as the adipose/metabolic system, the cardiovascular system, and the central nervous system is posed. Expand
Impact of sex hormone metabolism on the vascular effects of menopausal hormone therapy in cardiovascular disease.
TLDR
Age-related changes in the vascular ER subtype, structure, expression, distribution, and post-ER signaling pathways in the endothelium and VSM, along with factors related to the design of RCTs, preexisting CVD condition, and structuralChanges in the blood vessels architecture have been suggested as possible causes of MHT failure in CVD. Expand
Potential role of estrogen in the pathobiology and prevention of Alzheimer's disease.
TLDR
The research focus of AD prevention is stressed, hormone therapy (HT) is introduced as a probable catalyst that may achieve this goal, and 3 mechanisms proposed to mediate estrogen's beneficial effects are outlined. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 50 REFERENCES
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a novel estrogen Δ8-estrone in postmenopausal women and men
Abstract Recently a tenth equine estrogen, identified as the sulfate ester of Δ 8 -estrone has been reported to be present in Premarin (a conjugated equine estrogen preparation), and because of itsExpand
Effect of oestrogen during menopause on risk and age at onset of Alzheimer's disease
TLDR
Oestrogen use in postmenopausal women may delay the onset and decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease and Prospective studies are needed to establish the dose and duration required to provide this benefit and to assess its safety in elderly post menopause women. Expand
A prospective study of estrogen replacement therapy and the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease
TLDR
This relationship between ERT and AD is investigated in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, a prospective multidisciplinary study of normal aging conducted by the National Institute on Aging, and offers additional support for a protective influence of estrogen in AD. Expand
How do we explain the clinical benefits of estrogen? From bedside to bench.
TLDR
In epidemiological studies, postmenopausal women taking estrogen replacement therapy experience up to 50% fewer adverse coronary events, with the greatest benefit occurring in women with coronary artery disease. Expand
Comparison of pharmacokinetics of a conjugated equine estrogen preparation (premarin) and a synthetic mixture of estrogens (C.E.S.) in postmenopausal women.
Objective To compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailabilities of key estrogen components of Premarin (Wyeth-Ayerst, Canada) with those of a generic conjugated estrogen preparation, C.E.S.Expand
Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women.
TLDR
As compared with women in the lowest fifth of the cohort with respect to vitamin E intake, those in the top fifth had a relative risk of major coronary disease of 0.66, after adjustment for age and smoking. Expand
Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. Principal results from the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial. Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. JAMA 2002; 288(3): 321-333
  • A. Gebbie
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
  • 2002
TLDR
Testing will be offered to both men and women presenting with symptoms, and greater uptake of testing among men will be promoted, and efforts will be made to trace partners or ex-partners of those found to be infected to offer treatment. Expand
Comparison of pharmacodynamic properties of various estrogen formulations.
TLDR
The synthetic estrogens, diethylstilbestrol and ethinyl estradiol, were relatively more potent on a weight basis for every response and produced the most marked response (fourfold to eighteenfold in excess of their FSH suppression) for the hepatic parameters. Expand
Mechanisms of Cardioprotection by Estrogens
  • M. Subbiah
  • Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1998
TLDR
Strong scientific evidence suggests that estrogen therapy offers considerable protection from coronary artery disease and substantial emphasis must be placed on research on individual components of the commonly used conjugated estrogens and estrogen structure/function relationship to target specific tissues and minimize undesirable effects while maintaining estrogen's cardioprotective potency. Expand
Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound found in grapes and wine, is an agonist for the estrogen receptor.
TLDR
It is concluded that resveratrol is a phytoestrogen and that it exhibits variable degrees of estrogen receptor agonism in different test systems, which broaden the spectrum of its biological actions and may be relevant to the reported cardiovascular benefits of drinking wine. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...