Estrogens, osteoarthritis and inflammation.

  title={Estrogens, osteoarthritis and inflammation.},
  author={Marta Mart{\'i}n-Mill{\'a}n and Santos Casta{\~n}eda},
  journal={Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme},
  volume={80 4},
Estrogens participate in several biological processes through different molecular mechanisms. Their final actions consist of a combination of both direct and indirect effects on different organ and tissues. Estrogen may have pro- and anti-inflammatory properties depending on the situation and the involved tissue. In general, acute loss of estrogens increases the levels of reactive oxygen species and activates nuclear factor-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, indicating their… CONTINUE READING
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