Estrogen receptors outside the nucleus in breast cancer

@article{Levin2007EstrogenRO,
  title={Estrogen receptors outside the nucleus in breast cancer},
  author={Ellis R. Levin and Richard J. Pietras},
  journal={Breast Cancer Research and Treatment},
  year={2007},
  volume={108},
  pages={351-361}
}
The estrogen receptor (ER) is the single most powerful predictor of breast cancer prognosis as well as an important contributor to the biology of carcinogenesis. In addition, endocrine therapy targeting ER directly (SERMS) or indirectly (aromatase inhibitors) forms the mainstay of adjuant therapy. Traditionally, human tumors are scored for the amount and presence of ER. However, this has centered on the population of ER found in the transformed epithelial cell nucleus. Over the last 40 years… 
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