Estrogen receptor β in the breast: role in estrogen responsiveness and development of breast cancer

@article{Gustafsson2000EstrogenR,
  title={Estrogen receptor $\beta$ in the breast: role in estrogen responsiveness and development of breast cancer},
  author={Jan-{\AA}ke Gustafsson and Margaret Warner},
  journal={The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
  year={2000},
  volume={74},
  pages={245-248}
}
  • J. Gustafsson, M. Warner
  • Published 30 November 2000
  • Medicine, Biology
  • The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Estrogen receptor beta in breast cancer.
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The possibility that ERbeta-selective ligands may well represent a useful class of pharmacological tools with a novel target, namely proliferating cells expressing ERbeta, is examined.
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Therapeutic targeting in the estrogen receptor hormonal pathway.
TLDR
Elucidation of the gene networks and cell signaling pathways under estrogen and SERM regulation and a clearer definition of the respective roles of ER-alpha and ER-beta and their coregulators in the actions of selective ER ligands should enable the identification of new gene targets for therapeutic intervention and the development of novel drugs for the optimal treatment and prevention of breast cancer.
Molecular action of the estrogen receptor and hormone dependency in breast cancer
  • H. Iwase
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Breast cancer
  • 2003
TLDR
Action of estrogen is not as simple as thought previously, and is likely influenced by ERβ, its variants and interaction with cofactors, which may follow from the discovery of these proteins.
New approaches to reverse resistance to hormonal therapy in human breast cancer.
Loss of ERbeta expression as a common step in estrogen-dependent tumor progression.
TLDR
The characterization of estrogen receptor beta brought new insight into the mechanisms underlying estrogen signaling, and the potential distinct roles of ERalpha and ERbeta expression in carcinogenesis, as suggested by experimental and clinical data are discussed in this review.
Role of estrogen receptor coregulators in endocrine resistant breast cancer.
TLDR
Emerging data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that targeting coregulators to inhibit BC progression to therapy resistance is feasible and the utility of targeting the ERα coregulator axis in treating advanced BC is explored.
Estrogens, estrogen receptors and melanoma
TLDR
The skin is the largest nonreproductive target tissue on which estrogen plays many beneficial and protective roles, and if future large-scale immunohistochemical and molecular studies point towards ERβ as an important factor in malignant melanoma progression, they will open up novel and targeted prognostic and therapeutic perspectives.
Expression of sex steroid receptor subtypes in normal and malignant breast tissue – a pilot study in postmenopausal women
TLDR
There is evidence that loss of ERß expression may relate to estrogen dependent tumor progression, and increased PR expression could possibly relate to breast cancer risk during combined estrogen/progestogen treatment.
Estrogen and its role in thyroid cancer.
TLDR
Estrogen is a potent growth factor both for benign and malignant thyroid cells that may explain the sex difference in the prevalence of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer.
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References

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TLDR
ERβ may be a useful prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer because overexpression of ERβ in tumors expressing both ER subtypes may explain the failure of antiestrogen therapy in some breast cancer patients.
Increased expression of estrogen receptor beta in chemically transformed human breast epithelial cells.
TLDR
Results from this study indicate that expression of ERbeta can be induced in chemical carcinogen-transformed human breast epithelial cells, and the more transformed cells showed higher levels of ER beta expression, regardless of which chemical carcinogens were initially used for cell transformation.
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The role of estrogens in the design of therapeutic strategies and their role as promoters of the growth of estrogen-dependent and estrogen-responsive tumors through activation of their nuclear receptors has provided a rationale for the designof therapeutic strategies, that is, antiestrogens.
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The results suggest that androgens may interact with either AR or PR, and perhaps both receptors, in E2 + TP-induced mammary glands and the induced tumors to effect the reduction in latency period, enhance tumor size, and increase incidence to 100%.
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TLDR
Data are consistent with the hypothesis that cells in normal human breast epithelium are hierarchical in organization and support a model in which proliferation of ER-negative cells is controlled by paracrine factors released from ER-positive cells under the influence of estradiol.
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TLDR
It is demonstrated by semiquantitative RT-PCR and RNase protection that ERβ2 mRNA was expressed at levels equal to those of the previously published ERβ (ERβ1) in ovary, prostate, pituitary, and muscle.
Human estrogen receptor β-gene structure, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern
TLDR
Data regarding the genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the human ERβ gene is presented, demonstrating that two independent ER genes do exist in the human and that this receptor is expressed in multiple tissues.
Molecular cloning and characterization of human estrogen receptor βcx: A potential inhibitor of estrogen action in human
TLDR
This study indicates that ERbetacx potentially inhibits ERalpha-mediated estrogen action and that alternative splicing of the C-terminal region and its inhibitory properties are characteristic of several members of nuclear receptor isoforms.
Expression of wild-type estrogen receptor beta and variant isoforms in human breast cancer.
TLDR
It is shown that ER-beta protein is expressed in all cancer cell lines tested and in three of five breast tumor samples, and variation in the size of the expressed ER- beta protein was consistent with the 530-amino acid, full-length ER-Beta sequence.
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