Estrogen mediation of breast tumor formation involves estrogen receptor-dependent, as well as independent, genotoxic effects.

@article{Santen2009EstrogenMO,
  title={Estrogen mediation of breast tumor formation involves estrogen receptor-dependent, as well as independent, genotoxic effects.},
  author={Richard J. Santen and Ercole L Cavalieri and Eleanor C Rogan and Jos{\'e} Russo and Joseph B Guttenplan and James Ingle and Wei Ping Yue},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={2009},
  volume={1155},
  pages={132-40}
}
Long-term exposure to estrogens influences the development of breast cancer in women, but the precise mechanisms involved are not clearly defined. Our working hypothesis is that estrogen modulates this process by two separate processes. One involves the binding of estradiol to estrogen receptor (ER) alpha with stimulation of cell proliferation. Errors in DNA occurring during replication result in fixed mutations when not repaired. The other process results from the formation of genotoxic… CONTINUE READING

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