Estrogen activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase is mediated by ER-α36 in ER-positive breast cancer cells.

It is well known that there are two estrogen-signaling pathways, genomic estrogen signaling and non-genomic or rapid estrogen signaling. Although both ER-α and ER-β have been suggested to mediate both genomic and non-genomic estrogen signaling, rapid estrogen signaling such as activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling in ER-positive breast cancer MCF7 cells has… (More)