Estrogen Receptor-Expression in Human Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

  title={Estrogen Receptor-Expression in Human Testicular Germ Cell Tumors},
  author={Vernon M. Pais and Irwin Leav and Kin-Mang Lau and Zhong Yi Jiang and Shuk-Mei Ho},
Purpose: Estrogen exposure has been linked to a risk for the development of testicular germ cell cancers. The effects of estrogen are now known to be mediated by estrogen receptor (ER)and receptor subtypes, but only ERhas been found in human normal testis. The goal of the present study was to compare the localization and expression levels of these ER subtypes in testicular germ cell cancers (seminomas and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors) with normal testis. For completeness, expression of… CONTINUE READING
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