Estradiol gel: review of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety in menopausal women

@article{Naunton2006EstradiolGR,
  title={Estradiol gel: review of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety in menopausal women},
  author={Mark Naunton and Asmar F. Y. Al Hadithy and Jacobus R B J Brouwers and David F Archer},
  journal={Menopause},
  year={2006},
  volume={13},
  pages={517-527}
}
Objective: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of a gel containing estradiol that is applied to the skin. Design: MEDLINE and EMBASE searches were conducted from 1966 to March 2005. Additional references were identified from bibliographies from selected studies in addition to approved product information. Results: Estradiol gel is indicated for the relief of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms in menopausal women, and moderate to severe symptoms of vulvar and… 

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References

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Estradiol gel in the treatment of menopausal symptoms: a placebo-controlled double-blind case study of efficacy and safety.

Percutaneous estradiol delivered in an alcohol-water gel is effective in treating climacteric symptoms and is an attractive alternative to both oral and transdermal patch administration of estrogen.

Estradiol Gel in the Treatment of Menopausal Symptoms: A Placebo‐Controlled Double‐Blind Case Study of Efficacy and Safety

  • C. March
  • Medicine, Biology
    Southern medical journal
  • 1992
Percutaneous estradiol delivered in an alcohol-water gel is effective in treating climacteric symptoms and is an attractive alternative to both oral and transdermal patch administration of estrogen.

Percutaneous 17&bgr;-estradiol gel for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women

17&bgr;-estradiol gel was effective and well tolerated for alleviating moderate-to-severe hot flushes in postmenopausal women.

Transdermal hormone therapy: gels and patches

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  • Medicine, Biology
    Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society
  • 2004
Patch and gel formulations are equally as effective in treating climacteric symptoms and improving bone mineral density, and the effects are comparable to those achieved by oral HT.

Effects of transdermal oestrogen therapy in postmenopausal women: a comparative study of an oestradiol gel and an oestradiol delivering patch

To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of an oestradiol gel and patch in hormone replacement therapy of postmenopausal women, dydrogesterone tablets were used as the progestogen component of the therapy.

Uterine and Vaginal Effects of Unopposed Ultralow-Dose Transdermal Estradiol

During 2 years of treatment with ultralow-dose unopposed estradiol, treatment and placebo groups had similar rates of endometrial hyperplasia, endometrian proliferation, and vaginal bleeding.

Effects of oral and transdermal estrogen/progesterone regimens on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in postmenopausal women. A randomized controlled trial.

Oral estrogen/progesterone replacement therapy may result in coagulation activation and increased fibrinolytic potential, whereas opposed transdermal estrogen appears without any substantial effects on hemostasis.
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