Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS

@article{Park2009EstimationOT,
  title={Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS},
  author={Benjamin J Park and Kathleen Wannemuehler and Barbara J. Marston and Nelesh P. Govender and Peter G. Pappas and Tom Chiller},
  journal={AIDS},
  year={2009},
  volume={23},
  pages={525–530}
}
OBJECTIVE Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the most important HIV-related opportunistic infections, especially in the developing world. [] Key MethodMETHODS We used the median incidence rate of available studies in a geographic region to estimate the region-specific cryptococcal meningitis incidence; this was multiplied by the 2007 United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS HIV population estimate for each region to estimate cryptococcal meningitis cases.
Global burden of disease of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: an updated analysis.
Original Research: A medical audit of the management of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-positive patients
  • Medicine
  • 2012
TLDR
Despite recent expansion of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in developing countries, Cryptococcal meningitis remains a major opportunistic infection, and a leading cause of mortality in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.
Prevalence, correlates, and outcomes of cryptococcal antigen positivity among patients with AIDS, United States, 1986-2012.
TLDR
The prevalence of cryptococcal infection among advanced AIDS patients in the United States was high and above the published cost-effectiveness threshold for routine screening, and routine CrAg screening among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with a CD4 count ≤100 cells/µL is recommended to detect and treat early infection.
High ongoing burden of cryptococcal disease in Africa despite antiretroviral roll out.
TLDR
The results show that the “treatment gap” is not narrowed, and AIDS-related illness such as cryptococcal meningitis and the associated mortality are not reduced, despite a major effort to expand access to ART throughout sub-Saharan Africa over recent years.
Prevalence and Correlates of Cryptococcal Antigen Positivity Among AIDS Patients — United States, 1986–2012
TLDR
To quantify the prevalence of undiagnosed cryptococcal infection in HIV-infected persons in the United States during 1986-2012, stored sera from 1,872 participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study with CD4 T-cell counts <100 cells/µL were screened for CrAg, which indicated the overall prevalence of CrAg positivity to be 2.9%.
Cryptococcal meningitis: epidemiology, immunology, diagnosis and therapy
TLDR
Protective immune responses in HIV-associated cases, immunogenetic predisposition to infection, and the role of immune-mediated pathology in patients with non-HIV associated infection and in the context of HIV- associated immune reconstitution reactions are better understood.
Public Health Importance of Cryptococcal Disease: Epidemiology, Burden, and Control
This chapter focuses primarily on HIV-associated cryptococcosis, due to its much greater public health burden, and discusses the challenges to public health agencies in addressing the threat of
HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Disease in Resource-Limited Settings: A Case for “Prevention Is Better Than Cure”?
TLDR
Early diagnosis, proactive antifungal therapy with concurrent management of raised intracranial pressure creates the potential to markedly reduce mortality associated with this disease.
Treatment of Cryptococcal Meningitis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
TLDR
Even in a setting where amphotericin B is available, mortality from cryptococcal meningitis in this setting is high, particularly in the immediate period after diagnosis, which highlights the still unmet need not only for earlier diagnosis of HIV and timely access to treatment of opportunistic infections, but for better treatment strategies.
High Prevalence of Cryptococcal Antigenemia among HIV-infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Ethiopia
TLDR
Cryptococcal antigenemia is high in Ethiopia and rapid scale up of screening programs is needed, and Screening should be implemented for HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts regardless of symptoms or receipt of ART.
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