Estimation of the Number of Spiked Eigenvalues in a Covariance Matrix by Bulk Eigenvalue Matching Analysis

@article{Ke2021EstimationOT,
  title={Estimation of the Number of Spiked Eigenvalues in a Covariance Matrix by Bulk Eigenvalue Matching Analysis},
  author={Zheng Tracy Ke and Yucong Ma and Xihong Lin},
  journal={Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  year={2021}
}
The spiked covariance model has gained increasing popularity in high-dimensional data analysis. A fundamental problem is determination of the number of spiked eigenvalues, $K$. For estimation of $K$, most attention has focused on the use of $top$ eigenvalues of sample covariance matrix, and there is little investigation into proper ways of utilizing $bulk$ eigenvalues to estimate $K$. We propose a principled approach to incorporating bulk eigenvalues in the estimation of $K$. Our method imposes… 
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