Estimation of global final-stage energy-return-on-investment for fossil fuels with comparison to renewable energy sources

@article{Brockway2019EstimationOG,
  title={Estimation of global final-stage energy-return-on-investment for fossil fuels with comparison to renewable energy sources},
  author={Paul E. Brockway and Anne Owen and Lina I. Brand-Correa and Lukasz Hardt},
  journal={Nature Energy},
  year={2019},
  volume={4},
  pages={612-621}
}
Under many scenarios, fossil fuels are projected to remain the dominant energy source until at least 2050. However, harder-to-reach fossil fuels require more energy to extract and, hence, are coming at an increasing ‘energy cost’. Associated declines in fossil fuel energy-return-on-investment ratios at first appear of little concern, given that published estimates for oil, coal and gas are typically above 25:1. However, such ratios are measured at the primary energy stage and should instead be… Expand
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