Problem statement: Dust continued to blow across northern Africa and the Mediterranean Sea on March 3, 2005. Many sources are associated with areas where human impacts are well documented. Approach: Nonetheless, the largest and most active sources are located in truly remote areas where there is little or no human activity. Dust activity is extremely sensitive to many environmental parameters. Results: The persistent sources are located in the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in a broad “dust belt” that extends from the Meddle coast of North Africa over the Middle East. In this study we identify local environments enables us to identify those characteristics that are important for dust generation. However, if dust has an impact on climate, then the role of humans in the destabilization of soil surfaces takes on an added dimension. Conclusion/Recommendations: Threshold effects may be at work. Human health may also be adversely affected, primarily by inhalation of known or suspected components in dust events, including nonpathogenic and pathogenic viable microorganisms; chemical contaminants such as carcinogens, toxins, endocrine disruptors and toxic metals and small particles that may trigger other physiological reactions (e.g., asthma, cardiovascular events).