Estimating estrogen release and load from humans and livestock in shanghai, china.

  title={Estimating estrogen release and load from humans and livestock in shanghai, china.},
  author={Xiaowei Liu and Jianghong Shi and Hui Min Zhang and Xin-min Zhan and Genxiang Shen and Shuangqing Hu},
  journal={Journal of environmental quality},
  volume={43 2},
The estrogens estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) cause potent endocrine disruptive effects on aquatic wildlife. Currently, four sources of released estrogens exist in Shanghai: treated effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTPs); wastewater discharge from livestock farms; untreated or simply digested sewage from rural households; and runoff from farmland with livestock manure (LM) applied and irrigated with livestock wastewater (LW). A modified… CONTINUE READING


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