Estimating between- and within-individual variation in cortisol levels using multilevel models.

@article{Hruschka2005EstimatingBA,
  title={Estimating between- and within-individual variation in cortisol levels using multilevel models.},
  author={Daniel J Hruschka and Brandon A Kohrt and Carol M Worthman},
  journal={Psychoneuroendocrinology},
  year={2005},
  volume={30 7},
  pages={698-714}
}
Cortisol measures often are used to examine variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity as well as broader patterns of differential health. However, substantial within-individual variation renders single cortisol measurements unreliable as estimates for probing differences between individuals and groups. A standard practice to clarify between-individual differences involves collecting multiple samples from each participant and then deriving person-specific averages. By… CONTINUE READING
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