Estimating Time of Last Oral Ingestion of Cannabis From Plasma THC and THCCOOH Concentrations

@article{Huestis2006EstimatingTO,
  title={Estimating Time of Last Oral Ingestion of Cannabis From Plasma THC and THCCOOH Concentrations},
  author={Marilyn A. Huestis and Mahmoud A. Elsohly and Wesenyalsh Nebro and Allan J. Barnes and Richard A. Gustafson and Michael L. Smith},
  journal={Therapeutic Drug Monitoring},
  year={2006},
  volume={28},
  pages={540-544}
}
Estimating the time of last cannabis use is important in assessing possible impairment of drivers involved in accidents, in verifying accuracy of court testimony and in the future, helpful in therapeutic monitoring of cannabis agonists. In 1992, Huestis et al developed model 1, based on plasma Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations, and model 2, on plasma 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannbinol/THC ratios, that predicted 95% confidence intervals for time of last cannabis use. These models… 

Validation of a model for estimating time of last cannabis use from known concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol and the major metabolite

The results validate the Huestis model for predicting time of last use of cannabis use, especially when both THC and THC-COOH levels are known.

Temporal indication of cannabis use by means of THC glucuronide determination.

The analysis of the glucuronide of the pharmacologically active delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-gluc) may represent a complementary indicator for the detection of cannabis misuse in competition.

Review of Biologic Matrices (Urine, Blood, Hair) as Indicators of Recent or Ongoing Cannabis Use

The cannabis influence factor was demonstrated as a better tool to interpret the concentrations of THC and its metabolites in blood in forensic cases and therefore it was proposed to assume absolute driving inability because of cannabis intoxication from a CIF ≥10.

Disposition of cannabinoids in oral fluid after controlled around-the-clock oral THC administration.

Measurement of THCCOOH in OF not only identifies cannabis exposure, but also minimizes the possibility of passive inhalation and may be a better analyte for detection of cannabis use.

Pharmacokinetic Characterization of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Urine Following Acute Oral Cannabis Ingestion in Healthy Adults.

Ingestion of cannabis brownies containing the 10 and 25 mg THC doses yielded THCCOOH concentrations that differed in magnitude and time course from those previously reported for the smoked route of administration of comparable doses.

Oral fluid and plasma cannabinoid ratios after around-the-clock controlled oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol administration.

Despite multiple oral THC administrations each day and increasing plasma THC concentrations, OF THC concentrations generally decreased over time, reflecting primarily previously self-administered smoked cannabis.

Plasma Cannabinoid Concentrations During Dronabinol Pharmacotherapy for Cannabis Dependence

During active dronabinol dosing, significant dose-dependent increases in THC and 11-OH-THC concentrations support withdrawal symptom suppression, and this data cannot distinguish oral THC dosing from the smoked cannabis intake.

Do Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations indicate recent use in chronic cannabis users?

It is currently unknown whether neurocognitive impairment occurs with low blood THC concentrations, and whether return to normal performance, as documented previously following extended cannabis abstinence, is accompanied by the removal of residual THC in brain.

Implications of plasma Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC concentrations in chronic cannabis smokers.

Cannabis use duration and plasma THCCOOH concentrations were positively correlated on days 1-3, and THC's presence in plasma for seven days of abstinence suggests its detection may not indicate recent use in daily cannabis users.

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The validation of the predictive models of time of last cannabis use to include multiple exposures and low THC concentrations provides an objective and validated method for assessing the contribution of cannabis to accidents or clinical symptoms.

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