Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history

  title={Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history},
  author={Steven M. Stanley},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  pages={E6325 - E6334}
  • S. Stanley
  • Published 3 October 2016
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Significance This paper shows that background extinction definitely preceded mass extinctions; introduces a mathematical method for estimating the amount of this background extinction and, by subtracting it from total extinction, correcting estimates of losses in mass extinctions; presents a method for estimating the amount of erroneous backward smearing of extinctions from mass extinction intervals; and introduces a method for calculating species losses in a mass extinction that takes into… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Past, present, and future mass extinctions
The End-Permian Mass Extinction: Nature’s Revolution
Several localities around the world expose successions of rocks that straddle the Permian–Triassic boundary documenting a common pattern of environmental change. This change testifies to a
Evidence from South Africa for a protracted end-Permian extinction on land
A unique dataset comprising hundreds of precisely positioned tetrapod fossils is analyzed, identifying a protracted (∼1 Ma) extinction and the blooming of “disaster taxa” before the main extinction rather than in its aftermath as assumed previously, demonstrating that the effects of biotic crises vary prominently among Earth’s surface environments.
Are Insects Heading Toward Their First Mass Extinction? Distinguishing Turnover From Crises in Their Fossil Record
Abstract Time and again, over hundreds of millions of years, environmental disturbances have caused mass extinctions of animals ranging from reptiles to corals. The anthropogenic loss of species
A framework for the integrated analysis of the magnitude, selectivity, and biotic effects of extinction and origination
Abstract. The taxonomic and ecologic composition of Earth's biota has shifted dramatically through geologic time, with some clades going extinct while others diversified. Here, we derive a metric
Relationship between extinction magnitude and climate change during major marine/terrestrial animal crises
  • K. Kaiho
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2022
Abstract. Major mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic Eon occurred during abrupt global climate changes accompanied by environmental destruction driven by large volcanic eruptions and projectile
Loss of Biodiversity Dimensions through Shifting Climates and Ancient Mass Extinctions.
The fossil record raises a key issue: whether the biotic consequences of present-day stresses will more closely resemble the long-term effects of past climate changes or those that cascaded from the mass extinctions.
Environmental crises at the Permian–Triassic mass extinction
The link between the Permian–Triassic mass extinction (252 million years ago) and the emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (STLIP) was first proposed in the 1990s. However, the
End-Paleozoic Mass Extinction: Hierarchy of Causes and a New Cosmoclimatological Perspective for the Largest Crisis
  • Y. Isozaki
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2019
The largest mass extinction in the Phanerozoic occurred at the boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras (about 252 million years ago). The end-Paleozoic extinction that determined the fate of


When Life Nearly Died: The Greatest Mass Extinction of All Time
There have been five big mass extinctions in the history of the Earth. One 65 million years ago wiped out the dinosaurs, but the greatest of all happened around 251 million years ago, at the end of
Evidence for extinction selectivity throughout the marine invertebrate fossil record
A method for detecting random extinction is used to demonstrate that during both background and mass extinction times, extinction of marine invertebrate genera has been nonrandom with respect to species richness categories of genera.
Volcanism, Mass Extinction, and Carbon Isotope Fluctuations in the Middle Permian of China
Fossiliferous rocks from southwest China show that a major extinction in the Middle Permian coincided with extensive volcanic eruptions, and the onset of volcanism was marked by both large phreatomagmatic eruptions and extinctions amongst fusulinacean foraminifers and calcareous algae.
Origination and Extinction through the Phanerozoic: A New Approach
  • M. Foote
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    The Journal of Geology
  • 2003
Observed first and last appearances of marine animal and microfossil genera in a way that explicitly takes incompleteness and its variation into consideration allows estimates of true rates of origination and extinction throughout the Phanerozoic.
Analysis of periodicity of extinction using the 2012 geological timescale
Analysis of two independent data sets with increased taxonomic resolution using the revised 2012 timescale reveals that an extinction periodicity first detected by Raup and Sepkoski (1984) for only the post-Paleozoic actually runs through the entire Phanerozoic.
A Double Mass Extinction at the End of the Paleozoic Era
Three tests based on fossil data indicate that high rates of extinction recorded in the penultimate (Guadalupian) stage of the Paleozoic era are not artifacts of a poor fossil record. Instead, they
Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions
Accelerated biotic turnover during the Late Triassic has led to the perception of an end-Triassic mass extinction event, now regarded as one of the ‘‘big five’’ extinctions. Close examination of the
The double mass extinction revisited: reassessing the severity, selectivity, and causes of the end-Guadalupian biotic crisis (Late Permian)
A gradual reduction in diversity, rather than a sharp end-Guadalupian extinction, precludes the need to invoke drastic extinction mechanisms and indicates that taxonomic loss at the end of the Paleozoic was concentrated in the traditional end-Permian (end-Changhsingian) extinction, which eliminated 78% of all marine invertebrate genera.
Decoupling of taxonomic and ecologic severity of Phanerozoic marine mass extinctions
There have been five major mass extinctions among the marine biota during the ∼0.6 b.y. history of metazoan life on Earth. These mass extinctions have been ranked from the largest to the smallest by
Strength, timing, setting and cause of mid-Palaeozoic extinctions
  • M. House
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2002