Highly efficient in vitro tetraploid plant production via colchicine treatment using embryogenic suspension cultures in grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Mencía)
We estimated genetic and environmental variance components for fruit quality traits (cluster weight, berry weight, soluble solids content, total sugar content, sugar composition, free acid content, total amino acid content, amino acid composition), and a functional trait (gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content) of three commercial tetraploid table grape cultivars (Kyoho, Pione, Suiho) grown in Japan over three successive years. ANOVA showed that the effect of genotype was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except soluble solids content and total sugar content. The effect of the year was significant for all traits except amino acid composition (γ ratio) and GABA content. The variance of genotype (σ g 2 ) was highest for γ ratio (63.6%), high in sugar composition (α ratio, 60.3%) and GABA content (58.8%), and negligible for soluble solids content (0.0%) and total sugar content (0.0%). The variance of among years (σ y 2 ) was very high in soluble solids content (82.8%), high in total sugar content (60.2%) and negligibly small in γ ratio (8.7%) and GABA content (6.4%). Some effects of genotype × year interaction, among vines within genotypes, and vine × year interaction were statistically significant, but these components were negligibly small. Except for soluble solids content and total sugar content, significant varietal differences in the traits were recorded. Variance estimates for each trait provides useful information for optimal yearly repetition to effectively discriminate genetic differences in fruit quality and functional traits for improving future tetraploid table grape breeding programs.