Estimates of Freshwater Discharge from Continents: Latitudinal and Seasonal Variations

  title={Estimates of Freshwater Discharge from Continents: Latitudinal and Seasonal Variations},
  author={Aiguo Dai and Kevin E. Trenberth},
  journal={Journal of Hydrometeorology},
  • A. DaiK. Trenberth
  • Published 1 December 2002
  • Environmental Science
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology
Annual and monthly mean values of continental freshwater discharge into the oceans are estimated at 18 resolution using several methods. The most accurate estimate is based on streamflow data from the world’s largest 921 rivers, supplemented with estimates of discharge from unmonitored areas based on the ratios of runoff and drainage area between the unmonitored and monitored regions. Simulations using a river transport model (RTM) forced by a runoff field were used to derive the river mouth… 

New estimates of continental discharge and oceanic freshwater transport [poster]

New estimates of freshwater discharge from continents were derived using stream-flow records from the world's largest 921 rivers, supplemented with estimates of discharge from unmonitored areas based

GRACE-Based Estimates of Terrestrial Freshwater Discharge from Basin to Continental Scales

Abstract In this study, new estimates of monthly freshwater discharge from continents, drainage regions, and global land for the period of 2003–05 are presented. The method uses observed terrestrial

Changes in Continental Freshwater Discharge from 1948 to 2004

Abstract A new dataset of historical monthly streamflow at the farthest downstream stations for the world’s 925 largest ocean-reaching rivers has been created for community use. Available new gauge

Using moisture conservation to evaluate oceanic surface freshwater fluxes in climate models

We apply a diagnostic based on moisture conservation in the atmosphere, integrated over planetary-scale ocean basins and drainage areas to evaluate freshwater fluxes over the ocean surface to three

Estimates of the Global Water Budget and Its Annual Cycle Using Observational and Model Data

Abstract A brief review is given of research in the Climate Analysis Section at NCAR on the water cycle. Results are used to provide a new estimate of the global hydrological cycle for long-term

Continental runoff into the oceans (1950-2008)

AbstractA common term in the continental and oceanic components of the global water cycle is freshwater discharge to the oceans. Many estimates of the annual average global discharge have been made

Spatial and temporal variability of freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska

A study of the freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) has been carried out. Using available streamgage data, regression equations were developed for monthly flows. These equations express

Contemporary estimates of Pan‐Arctic freshwater discharge from GRACE and reanalysis

Streamflow from Arctic river basins has been increasing in recent decades in response to warming climate. In addition to being a sensitive indicator of global change, Arctic discharge is a critical



Validation of the hydrological cycle of ECMWF and NCEP reanalyses using the MPI hydrological discharge model

To validate the hydrological cycle of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalyses in comparison with

An extended data set of river discharges for validation of general circulation models

Using existing measurements of streamflow data, we present a new data set of river discharges to the ocean, for use in validating climate models. This data set includes annual mean discharges for 981

Evaluation of the atmospheric moisture and hydrological cycle in the NCEP reanalyses. Technical note

An evaluation is carried out of the moisture fields, the precipitation P and evaporation E, and the moisture transport and divergence in the atmosphere from the global atmospheric National Centers

The atmospheric energy budget and implications for surface fluxes and ocean heat transports

Abstract Comprehensive diagnostic comparisons and evaluations have been carried out with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) and

Predicting the discharge of global rivers

The ability to simulate coupled energy and water fluxes over large continental river basins, in particular streamflow, was largely nonexistent a decade ago. Since then, macroscale hydrological models

Continental-Scale River Flow in Climate Models

Abstract The hydrologic cycle is a major part of the global climate system. There is an atmospheric flux of water from the ocean surface to the continents. The cycle is closed by return flow in

Discharge Observation Networks in Arctic Regions: Computation of the River Runoff into the Arctic Ocean, Its Seasonality and Variability

Knowledge about freshwater flux is of importance to develop coupled landsurfaceatmosphere models which are able to yield satisfactory results when they are calibrated with observed river discharge.

Freshwater transports in HadCM3

Abstract The hydrological cycle can influence climate through a great variety of processes. A good representation of the hydrological cycle in climate models is therefore crucial. Attempts to analyse

Global Precipitation: A 17-Year Monthly Analysis Based on Gauge Observations, Satellite Estimates, and Numerical Model Outputs

Gridded fields (analyses) of global monthly precipitation have been constructed on a 2.5° latitude–longitude grid for the 17-yr period from 1979 to 1995 by merging several kinds of information

Trends in evaporation and surface cooling in the Mississippi River Basin

A synthesis of available data for the Mississippi River basin (area 3 × 106 km²) reveals an upward trend in evaporation during recent decades, driven primarily by increases in precipitation and