Esterases activity in the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum exposed to chlorpyrifos and its implication to motor activity.

Abstract

The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is a neotenic salamander considered a good biological model due to its ability to regenerate limbs, tail, brain and heart cells. Nevertheless, severe reduction of A. mexicanum wild populations in the lacustrine area of Xochimilco, the natural habitat of the axolotl, could be related to several environmental pressures as the presence of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), intensively applied in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of environmentally realistic chlorpyrifos (CPF) concentrations, a OPP commonly used in this zone, on esterases activity (acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase) and bioconcentration of CPF and to relate them with the motor activity of A. mexicanum juveniles. Axolotls were exposed 48 h to 0.05 and 0.1mg CPF/L, and the responses were evaluated at the end of the CPF exposure. Results suggest that CPF is bioconcentrated into axolotls and that the CPF internal concentrations are related with the observed inhibition activity of AChE (>50%) and CbE (≈ 50%). CPF concentration responsible of the inhibition of the 50% of AChE activity (IC50) was estimated in 0.04 mg CPF/L; however IC50 for CbE activity was not possible to calculate since inhibition levels were lower than 50%, results that suggest a higher resistance of CbE enzymatic activity to CPF. However, motor activity was a more sensitive endpoint to CPF poisoning since time that axolotls spent active and walking, frequency and speed of swimming, frequency of prey attack were reduced >90% of control groups. The motor activity alterations in the axolotl could be related with the registered esterases inhibition. Thus important alterations on axolotls were identified even at short time and low concentrations of CPF exposure. Also, it was possible to link biochemical responses as esterases activity with higher levels of biological organization as behavior. This study provides tools for the regulation of the use of organophosphorus pesticides in the natural habitat of the axolotl.

DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.09.001

Cite this paper

@article{RoblesMendoza2011EsterasesAI, title={Esterases activity in the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum exposed to chlorpyrifos and its implication to motor activity.}, author={Cecilia Robles-Mendoza and Sebastian R Z{\'u}{\~n}iga-Lagunes and Claudia Ponce de Leon-Hill and Jes{\'u}s Hern{\'a}ndez-Soto and Cecilia Vanegas-P{\'e}rez}, journal={Aquatic toxicology}, year={2011}, volume={105 3-4}, pages={728-34} }