Preinduction of potent hapten-reactive helper T cell activity and subsequent immunization with hapten-coupled syngeneic tumor cells result in enhanced induction of tumor-specific immunity through T-T cell collaboration between anti-hapten helper T cells and tumor-specific effector T cells. On the basis of this augmenting mechanism, a tumor-specific immunotherapy protocol was established in which a growing tumor regresses by utilizing a potent trinitrophenyl (TNP)-helper T cell activity. C3H/He mice were allowed to generate the amplified (more potent) TNP-helper T cell activity by skin painting with trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) after pretreatment with cyclophosphamide. Five weeks later, the mice were inoculated intradermally with syngeneic transplantable X5563 tumor cells. When TNCB was injected into X5563 tumor mass, an appreciable number of growing tumors, in the only group of C3H/He mice in which the amplified TNP-helper T cell activity had been generated were observed to regress (regressor mice). These regressor mice were shown to have acquired tumor-specific T cell-mediated immunity. Such immunity was more potent than that acquired in mice whose tumor was simply removed by surgical resection. These results indicate that in situ TNP haptenation of the tumor cells in TNP-primed mice can induce the enhanced tumor-specific immunity leading to the regression of a growing tumor. Most importantly, the present study further investigates the applicability of this TNP immunotherapy protocol to an autochthonous tumor system. The results demonstrate that an appreciable percent of growing methylcholanthrene-induced autochthonous tumors regressed by the above TNP immunotherapy protocol. Thus, the present model provides an effective maneuver for tumor-specific immunotherapy in syngeneic transplantable as well as autochthonous tumor systems.