Knockdown of anterior gradient 2 expression extenuates tumor-associated phenotypes of SNU-478 ampulla of Vater cancer cells
Human cell lines established from biliary tract cancers are rare, and only five have been reported previously. We report the characterisation of six new six biliary tract cancer cell lines (designated SNU-245, SNU-308, SNU-478, SNU-869, SNU-1079 and SNU-1196) established from primary tumour samples of Korean patients. The cell lines were isolated from two extrahepatic bile duct cancers (one adenocarcinoma of common bile duct, one hilar bile duct cancer), two adenocarcinomas of ampulla of Vater, one intrahepatic bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma), and one adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder. The cell phenotypes, including the histopathology of the primary tumours and in vitro growth characteristics, were determined. We also performed molecular characterisation, including DNA fingerprinting analysis and abnormalities of K-ras, p15, p16, p53, hMLH1, hMSH2, DPC4, β-catenin, E-cadherin, hOGG1, STK11, and TGF-βRII genes by PCR–SSCP and sequencing analysis. In addition, we compared the genetic alterations in tumour cell lines and their corresponding tumour tissues. All lines grew as adherent cells. Population doubling times varied from 48–72 h. The culture success rate was 20% (six out of 30 attempts). All cell lines showed (i) relatively high viability; (ii) absence of mycoplasma or bacteria contamination; and (iii) genetic heterogeneity by DNA fingerprinting analysis. Among the lines, three lines had p53 mutations; and homozygous deletions in both p16 and p15 genes were found three and three lines, respectively; one line had a heterozygous missense mutation in hMLH1; E-cadherin gene was hypermethylated in two lines. Since the establishment of biliary tract cancer cell lines has been rarely reported in the literature, these newly established and well characterised biliary tract cancer cell lines would be very useful for studying the biology of biliary tract cancers, particularly those related to hypermethylation of E-cadherin gene in biliary tract cancer.