# Essential and inessential features of Hawking radiation

@article{Visser2003EssentialAI, title={Essential and inessential features of Hawking radiation}, author={Matt Visser}, journal={International Journal of Modern Physics D}, year={2003}, volume={12}, pages={649-661} }

There are numerous derivations of the Hawking effect available in the literature. They emphasise different features of the process, and sometimes make markedly different physical assumptions. This article presents a "minimalist" argument, and strips the derivation of as much excess baggage as possible. All that is really necessary is quantum physics plus a slowly evolving future apparent horizon (not an event horizon). In particular, neither the Einstein equations nor Bekenstein entropy are…

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