Antifungal effects of the aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis
The essential oils from the flower, leaf, and stem of Echinophora lamondiana B.Yildiz et Z.Bahcecioglu were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 41, 37, and 44 compounds were identified, which accounted for 98.0, 99.1, and 97.0% of flower, leaf, and stem essential oils, respectively. The monoterpenic hydrocarbons were found to be high in all samples of the essential oils. The major components of essential oils from flower, leaf, and stem of E. lamondiana were δ-3-carene (61.9, 75.0, and 65.9%, respectively), α-phellandrene (20.3, 14.1, and 12.8%, respectively), and terpinolene (2.7, 3.3, and 2.9%, respectively). Flower and leaf essential oils and terpinolene produced biting deterrence similar to 25 nmol/cm(2) N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET; 97%) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Compounds (+)-δ-3-carene, (R)-(-)-α-phellandrene, and water-distilled essential oils were significantly less repellent than DEET. Among essential oils, leaf oil was the least toxic of the oils, with an LC50 value of 138.3 ppm, whereas flower essential oil killed only 32% larvae, and no mortality of stem oil at highest tested dosages against Ae aegypti was observed. Terpinolene and α-phellandrene showed higher toxicity than δ-3-carene in both the species. In contrast to Ae. aegypti, all the essential oils showed toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus, and toxicity was higher in leaf oil than the other two oils. These results could be useful in finding new, safe, and more effective natural biopesticides and biting deterrent or repellents against Ae. aegypti.