Essential Bacillus subtilis genes.


To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway are essential. Identification of unknown and unexpected essential genes opens research avenues to better understanding of processes that sustain bacterial life.

Extracted Key Phrases

5 Figures and Tables

Citations per Year

3,517 Citations

Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has 3,517 citations based on the available data.

See our FAQ for additional information.

Cite this paper

@article{Kobayashi2003EssentialBS, title={Essential Bacillus subtilis genes.}, author={Kenji Kobayashi and S. Dusko Ehrlich and Alessandra M. Albertini and Giuseppe Amati and Kasper Krogh Andersen and Marie-Claire Arnaud and Kiyofumi Asai and Sayaka Ashikaga and St{\'e}phane Aymerich and Philippe Bessi{\`e}res and F M Boland and S C Brignell and Sierd Bron and Keigo Bunai and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Chapuis and Lone Christiansen and Antoine Danchin and Michel D{\'e}barbouill{\'e} and Etienne Dervyn and Elke Deuerling and Kristine Devine and Susanne Krogh Devine and Oliver Dreesen and Jeff Errington and Sabine Fillinger and Simon Foster and Yukio Fujita and Alessandro Galizzi and Rozenn Gardan and Caroline C Eschevins and Tadao Fukushima and Ken Haga and Colin Harwood and Michael Hecker and Dr. Y. Hosoya and M-F Hullo and Hiroshi Kakeshita and Dimitri Karamata and Yoshihito Kasahara and Fujio Kawamura and Kenjiro Koga and Pirkko Koski and Ritsuko Kuwana and Daisuke Imamura and Mika Ishimaru and San-e Ishikawa and Iu Ishio and Dominique Le Coq and Anne Masson and Catherine Mau{\"{e}l and Rob Meima and Rafael P. Mellado and Anne Moir and Shigeharu Moriya and E Nagakawa and Hideaki Nanamiya and Seiji Nakai and Per Holm Nygaard and Mitsuo Ogura and T Ohanan and Marie-Anne O'Reilly and Michele O'Rourke and Zolt{\'a}n Pr{\'a}gai and Harold M. Pooley and Georges Rapoport and Joy P Rawlins and Luis Rivas and Carlo Rivolta and Aya Sadaie and Yoshito Sadaie and Matti Sarvas and Tadashi Sato and Hans Henrik Saxild and Eoin Scanlan and Wolfgang Schumann and Jos F. M. L. Seegers and Junichi Sekiguchi and Agnieszka Sękowska and S. Seror and M Simon and P. Stragier and Roland Studer and Hiroyuki Takamatsu and Tomohiro Tanaka and Masayoshi Takeuchi and Helena B Thomaides and V K Vagner and January Maarten van Dijl and Kazuhiko Watabe and Anil Wipat and Hiroshi Yamamoto and M. Yamamoto and Yuki Yamamoto and Kenichi Yamane and Kenichiro Yata and Kazuya Yoshida and Hideki Yoshikawa and Ulrich Zuber and Nobuaki Ogasawara}, journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, year={2003}, volume={100 8}, pages={4678-83} }