Esophageal cancer is the 9th leading cause of cancer death in Taiwan. Lack of obvious symptoms or signs during its early stages means that patients are often already in the terminal stage or metastasis at their first diagnosis. A diagnosis of cancer greatly impacts both patients and their families. The purpose of this paper is to explore the current diagnostic methods and treatments used for esophageal cancer. We discuss the effects of physical, psychological and social problems such as dysphagia, fatigue, pain, uncertainty, and social isolation. We also explore the nursing interventions related to these problems. Understanding the health issues related to esophageal cancer will not only help nurses who take care of patients with esophageal cancer provide holistic care, it will also reduce patients' suffering through the treatment and recovery process. By applying interventions that effectively address the physical, psychological, and social realms, healthcare professionals can help patients feel more secure when dealing with related problems. This will improve patients' dignity, value and quality of life through their cancer journey.