Escaping the Laboratory: The Rodent Experiments of John B. Calhoun & Their Cultural Influence

@article{Ramsden2009EscapingTL,
  title={Escaping the Laboratory: The Rodent Experiments of John B. Calhoun \& Their Cultural Influence},
  author={E. Ramsden and E. J. Adams},
  journal={Journal of Social History},
  year={2009},
  volume={42},
  pages={761 - 792}
}
In John B. Calhoun's early crowding experiments, rats were supplied with everything they needed—except space. The result was population boom, followed by such severe psychological disruption that the animals died off to extinction. The take-home message was that crowding resulted in pathological behavior—in rats and by extension in humans. For those pessimistic about Earth's "carrying capacity," the macabre spectacle of this "behavioral sink" was a compelling symbol of the problems awaiting… Expand

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