Escalating Worldwide use of Urea – A Global Change Contributing to Coastal Eutrophication

  title={Escalating Worldwide use of Urea – A Global Change Contributing to Coastal Eutrophication},
  author={Patricia M. Glibert and John A. Harrison and Cynthia Ann Heil and Sybil P. Seitzinger},
While the global increase in the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has been well recognized, another change in fertilizer usage has simultaneously occurred: a shift toward urea-based products. Worldwide use of urea has increased more than 100-fold in the past 4 decades and now constitutes >50% of global nitrogenous fertilizer usage. Global urea usage extends beyond agricultural applications; urea is also used extensively in animal feeds and in manufacturing processes. This change has occurred… 
Organic Nitrogen Runoff in Coastal Marshes: Effects on Ecosystem Denitrification
Since the 1970s, a shift from inorganic to organic nitrogen-based fertilizer has occurred worldwide, and now urea constitutes greater than 50 % of the global nitrogenous fertilizer usage. As a
Distribution and regulation of urea in lakes of central North America
Summary 1. Urea accounts for ∼50% of global nitrogen (N)-based fertiliser; however, little is known of the factors regulating its distribution and abundance in freshwaters. Improved understanding
Persistence and Surface Transport of Urea-Nitrogen: A Rainfall Simulation Study.
This rainfall simulation study sought to assess the potential for different N fertilizers and manures to contribute to urea in runoff from a Coastal Plain soil on the Eastern Shore of Maryland and highlighted the potential of simple management options, such as shallow incorporation or timing, to greatly reduce urea runoff losses.
Distribution and regulation of urea in lakes of central North
SUMMARY 1. Urea accounts for � 50% of global nitrogen (N)-based fertiliser; however, little is known of the factors regulating its distribution and abundance in freshwaters. Improved understanding of
From hogs to HABs: impacts of industrial farming in the US on nitrogen and phosphorus and greenhouse gas pollution
  • P. Glibert
  • Medicine, Environmental Science
  • 2020
How nutrient inputs—from fertilizer and CAFOs—as well as atmospheric NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions, are changing regionally within the US and how these changes compare with nutrient inputs from human wastewater is provided.
Nitrogen in the Yaqui Valley: Sources, Transfers, and Consequences
In nitrogen fertilizer management, as in so many other ways, the Yaqui Valley represents a microcosm for the study of changes that are happening all over the world. Over the last thirty years,
Fertilizers and nitrate pollution of surface and ground water: an increasingly pervasive global problem
Nitrate pollution of ground and surface water bodies all over the world is generally linked with continually increasing global fertilizer nitrogen (N) use. But after 1990, with more fertilizer N
Urea Release by Intermittently Saturated Sediments from a Coastal Agricultural Landscape.
It is postulate that concentrations of urea-N in ditches that greatly exceed environmental thresholds are mediated by biological production in sediments and release to stagnant surface water, which could elevate the risk of harmful algal blooms downstream in receiving waters despite the dilution effect.
Differential Drawdown of Ammonium, Nitrate, and Urea by Freshwater Chlorophytes and Cyanobacteria1
The findings support the emerging urea–cyanoHAB link and the potential importance of urea in freshwater eutrophication and the need to understand how urea influences phytoplankton community composition may be instrumental in predicting bloom dynamics.


Urea in the Tributaries of the Chesapeake and Coastal Bays of Maryland
Concentrations of dissolved urea were monitored in several Chesapeake Bay tributaries from 1998 to 2002. Urea is a commonly used agricultural fertilizer and is also a breakdown product of poultry
Agricultural runoff fuels large phytoplankton blooms in vulnerable areas of the ocean
It is demonstrated that nitrogen-deficient areas of the tropical and subtropical oceans are acutely vulnerable to nitrogen pollution, and it is projected that by the year 2050, 27–59% of all nitrogen fertilizer will be applied in developing regions located upstream of nitrogen- deficient marine ecosystems.
Summer inputs of riverine nutrients to the Baltic Sea: Bioavailability and eutrophication relevance
Most nitrogen and phosphorus transported by world rivers to the oceans is associated with dissolved organic matter. However, organic matter as a potential source of N and P has hitherto been largely
Sources of nutrient pollution to coastal waters in the United States: Implications for achieving coastal water quality goals
Some 60% of coastal rivers and bays in the U.S. have been moderately to severely degraded by nutrient pollution. Both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contribute to the problem, although for most
Significance of bacteria in urea dynamics in coastal surface waters
The significance of bacteria as urea producers should be incorporated into models of nitrogen regeneration in surface waters, as in typical seawater samples, which have >l00 nM urea, the bacterial ureolysis system is always near-saturated.
Coastal marine eutrophication: A definition, social causes, and future concerns
Abstract There is a need in the marine research and management communities for a clear operational definition of the term, eutrophication. I propose the following: This definition is consistent with
Evidence for dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus uptake during a cyanobacterial bloom in Florida Bay
The potential for different sources of N, including DON, to stimulate differ- ent components of the algal community, and for the phytoplankton and bacteria to respond differently to N and P is demonstrated.
Global patterns of dissolved inorganic and particulate nitrogen inputs to coastal systems: Recent conditions and future projections
We examine the global distribution of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and particulate nitrogen (PN) export to coastal systems and the effect of human activities and natural processes on that
Nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, and carbon in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia: Differential limitation of phytoplankton biomass and production
Subtropical estuaries have received comparatively little attention in the study of nutrient loading and subsequent nutrient processing relative to temperate estuaries. Australian estuaries are
Measuring Nitrogen Losses from Lowland Rice Using Bulk Aerodynamic and Nitrogen‐15 Balance Methods
Management practices, designed to reduce ammonia (NH₃) volatilization and total N loss from flooded rice fields, after application of urea, were assessed in the dry season at Mabitac, Philippines.