Effect of physical inactivity on major non communicable diseases worldwide: An analysis of burden of disease and life
- IM Leo, EJ Shiroma, F Lobeto, P Pustika, SN Blair, PT Katzmarzyk
Breast cancer (CaBr) accredits one of the highest numbers of deaths due to cancer in women on the planet. Severity of the breast cancer is dreaded, mostly due to its invasiveness and expedition of cancer progression. Since, infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) is the commonest type of breast cancer and alone accounts for more than 80% occurrence as compared to other types of breast cancer which requires more focus. Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a pivotal role in cancer development. MDA is a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, a chain of reaction initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to death of cells. Estrogen has been reported to be causative agent of cancers of epithelial origin including IDC, mullerian epithelial ovarian cancer etc. Thus, MDA and estrogen levels have been selected as biomarker for IDC. MDA assessment in serum and tissue was performed according to standard protocol. RBC count and haemoglobin level were measured by standard protocol. Estimation of estrogen was performed by ELISA. MDA level in serum of CaBr patients was found to be higher than normal persons with postmenopausal CaBr patients having highest level (p<0.0001) and similar fashioned graph was established while analyzing MDA in tissue with p<0.0493. RBC count was observed to be lower in both premenopausal and postmenopausal CaBr patients than normal person, Haemoglobin level also shows similar level as RBC. It can be concluded that oxidative stress devastate the cells structure and estrogen enhances proliferation which induces the invasion of epithelial cells into stromal cells of breast and begins the formation of IDC.