Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, On 13 November 1985: Tephra Fall and Lahars

  title={Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, On 13 November 1985: Tephra Fall and Lahars},
  author={J L Naranjo and Haraldur Sigurdsson and Steven Carey and William J. Fritz},
  pages={961 - 963}
A small Plinian eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia ejected 3.5 x 1010 kilograms of mixed dacite and andesite tephra on 13 November 1985, with a maximum column height of 31 kilometers above sea level. Small pyroclastic flows and surges, generated during the initial stage of the eruption, caused surface melting of approximately 10% of the volcano's ice cap, leading to meltwater floods. The erosive floods incorporated soils and loose sediments from the volcano's flanks and… 
A model of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia
A workshop was held at the Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia in Manizales, Colombia, March 28 to April 1, 1988, to review the accumulated data on the disastrous November 13, 1985, eruption and
Mechanisms of degassing at Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia
Nevado del Ruiz volcano is an andesite stratovolcano located in the northern Andes of Colombia. The volcano erupted on 11 September 1985, 13 November 1985, and 1 September 1989. The last two
Eruption Dynamics and Petrology of the Most Recent Eruptions of Nevado Del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, South America
Field measurements and petrographic analyses of pumices from the most recent tephra deposits of Nevado del Ruiz volcano provide a context in which to view the disastrous eruption of 13 November, 1985
Geomorphological Characteristics of the Ruiz Volcano and Surroundings
Landforms related to the Ruiz Volcano, the northernmost active volcano in South America, are both of volcanic and glacial origins. A brief historical account includes several eruptions and culminates
Breathing of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano reservoir, Colombia, inferred from repeated seismic tomography
It is argued that the recurring “breathing” of the shallow reservoir is the main cause of current eruptions at NRV.


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Two large, high-velocity lahars (volcanic debris flows) were triggered by a pyroclastic surge during the first few minutes of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens. The initial surge cloud
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We propose that komatiite lavas were emplaced as turbulent flows, accompanied by vigorous forced convection with cooling rates often in excess of hundreds of °C h−1. They melted and assimilated up to
Coarse-grained nonmarine volcaniclastic sediment : terminology and depositional process
Modern and ancient volcaniclastic sedimentary sequences contain depositional units whose features cannot be attributed to fully turbulent, dilute stream flow or viscous debris flow. The
Zambrano, and other members of the Comite de Estudios Vulcanologicos Comunidad Caldense for logistical support. Helicopter transport was provided By the Colombian Air Force and the U.S. Army
  • We are grateful to M. L. Calvache for collaboration in mapping of lahar deposits. H.S. and S.C. were supported bs National Science Foundation grant EA c-830618
  • 1985
Volcanoes ofthe World (Hutchinson Ross
  • Stroudsburg, PA,
  • 1981