Immunizations in man may act upon the infectious diseases development in three evolutive patterns: eradication, elimination, or disease control. Since the eradication of smallpox, very few diseases are at present candidates for a next eradication; poliomyelitis will be the first, perhaps followed by measles in many years. In spite of efficacious vaccines and a solely human reservoir, the eradication requires very strict conditions. However some diseases have been recently successfully eliminated: poliomyelitis (Americas, Europe, West Pacific regions), measles (i.e. Finland, United States), rubella (i.e. Finland). In spite of some limits, diphtheria, pertussis, hepatitis B are well controlled providing to get a sufficient vaccine coverage and to improve a sustained surveillance of those diseases. Regarding Haemophilus influenzae b, infections it is premature to predict a near elimination and the control is not yet well defined. National and regional programs have often to improve immunisation coverage and a better surveillance.