Equity and Excellence in Research Funding

@article{Hicks2011EquityAE,
  title={Equity and Excellence in Research Funding},
  author={Diana Hicks and J. Sylvan Katz},
  journal={Minerva},
  year={2011},
  volume={49},
  pages={137-151}
}
The tension between equity and excellence is fundamental in science policy. This tension might appear to be resolved through the use of merit-based evaluation as a criterion for research funding. This is not the case. Merit-based decision making alone is insufficient because of inequality aversion, a fundamental tendency of people to avoid extremely unequal distributions. The distribution of performance in science is extremely unequal, and no decision maker with the power to establish a… 
Concentration or dispersal of research funding?
TLDR
The review demonstrates a strong inclination toward arguments in favor of increased dispersal and highlights the need for more research on the interplay between science-internal mechanisms and policy priorities in accelerating concentration of funding.
Underestimating or overestimating the distribution inequality of research funding? The influence of funding sources and subdivision
TLDR
A more accurate analysis of the distribution inequality of research funding is provided, and it considers all of the funding sources in the funding system and the subdivision of funding to junior researchers within research teams to determine the influence of these two aspects of the Gini results at the individual level.
Size, Accumulation and Performance for Research Grants: Examining the Role of Size for Centres of Excellence
TLDR
Overall, multivariate econometric analysis finds evidence that performance is increasing in grant size and over time, suggesting that there is a point at which performance peaks.
The size of research funding: Trends and implications
This paper examines the role of grant size in research funding. There is an increasing focus in a number of countries on larger grant forms, such as centers of excellence, and in some cases also
Excellence and growth dynamics: A comparative study of the Matthew effect
In the past two decades, centres of excellence (CoE) and other ‘research excellence initiatives’ likely to increase the cumulative advantages and stratification of science, have been implemented in
Competition and concentration in the academic research industry: An empirical analysis of the sector dynamics in Australia 1990–2008
In the last two or three decades, many countries have used various market instruments to steer and manage their academic research sector. Proponents of a market approach claim greater efficiency and
Center of excellence funding: Connecting organizational capacities and epistemic effects
This study investigates the relationship between resource concentration/stability and new results/breakthroughs in the context of a Swedish Center of Excellence (CoE) scheme. A common assumption in
Moral hazard and adverse selection in research funding: Centres of excellence in Norway and Sweden
The past two decades have seen an increase in the use of funding schemes such as ‘centres of excellence’. This paper examines how centre of excellence schemes have been adapted to two distinct
Health innovation policy for the people
The US government has long played a central role in innovation, both through the patent system and by directly supporting research and development. In articulating innovation priorities and defining
Returns of research funding are maximised in media visibility for excellent institutes
This paper investigates public communication activity across research institutes with varying levels of excellence in research, and how competitive funding affects this activity. With competing
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 26 REFERENCES
Impact of evaluation-based funding on the production of scientific knowledge: What to worry about, and how to find out (Expertise for the German Ministry for Education and Research)
The rapid growth of EBF fits into this general trend towards greater accountability of public policy. A funding practice that relies exclusively on trust in science has difficulties legitimising
Thinking about Inequality
What is inequality? In the late 1990s there was an explosion of interest in the subject that yielded a substantial body of formal tools and results for income-distribution analysis. Nearly all of
Innovation Policy in the Knowledge-Based Economy
In 1987, the National Science Foundation sponsored a workshop entitledAn Agenda for Science Policy Research.That event was a hallmark in science and technology planning. The participants evaluated
Neural evidence for inequality-averse social preferences
TLDR
Functional MRI results provide direct evidence for the validity of inequality-averse models of social preferences, and show that the brain’s reward circuitry is sensitive to both advantageous and disadvantageous inequality.
Inequality Aversion, Efficiency, and Maximin Preferences in Simple Distribution Experiments
We present simple one-shot distribution experiments comparing the relative importance of efficiency concerns, maximin preferences, and inequality aversion, as well as the relative performance of the
Egalitarian motives in humans
TLDR
The results suggest that egalitarian motives affect income-altering behaviours, and may therefore be an important factor underlying the evolution of strong reciprocity and, hence, cooperation in humans.
Science Policy and Politics
1. Introduction: Scope and Content. PART I. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW. 2. The Formation of Science Policy, 1787-1950. 3. Old Wine in New Bottles, 1950 to the Present. PART II. ACTORS IN THE POLICY PROCESS.
Power-Law Distributions in Empirical Data
TLDR
This work proposes a principled statistical framework for discerning and quantifying power-law behavior in empirical data by combining maximum-likelihood fitting methods with goodness-of-fit tests based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and likelihood ratios.
The Solar System's first breath
TLDR
Scientists have made the crucial measurement of oxygen composition at the birth of the Solar System, finding that the Sun is relatively richer than Earth in oxygen-16, the most common oxygen isotope, contradicts the conventional wisdom that Earth has the same oxygen isotopes composition as the Sun.
...
...