Ovarian tissue cryopreservation allows the preservation of the female fertility potential for an undetermined period. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficiency of cryoprotective agents (CPAs; dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO; ethylene glycol, EG; and propylene glycol, PROH) using slow-freezing and vitrification methods, and evaluate the viability of cryopreserved equine ovarian tissue after 7 days of culture. Fresh and cryopreserved ovarian fragments were evaluated for preantral follicle morphology, stromal cell density, EGFR, Ki-67, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein expression, and DNA fragmentation. Vitrification with EG had the highest rate of morphologically normal preantral follicles, while DMSO had the lowest (76.1 ± 6.1% and 40.9 ± 14.8%, respectively; P < 0.05). In slow-freezing, despite that DMSO had the highest percentage of morphologically normal follicles (77.7 ± 5.8%), no difference among the CPAs was observed. Fluorescence intensity of EGFR and Ki-67 was greater when vitrification with EG was used. Regardless of the cryopreservation treatment, DMSO had the highest (P < 0.05) Bax/Bcl-2 ratio; however, DNA fragmentation was similar (P > 0.05) among treatments after thawing. After in vitro culture, the percentage of normal follicles was similar (P > 0.05) between slow-freezing and vitrification methods; however, vitrification had greater (P < 0.05) stromal cell density than slow-freezing. In summary, equine ovarian tissue was successfully cryopreserved, increasing the viability of the cells in the ovarian tissue after thawing when using DMSO and EG for slow-freezing and vitrification methods, respectively. Therefore, these results are relevant for fertility preservation programs.