Use of industrial by-products and natural media to adsorb nutrients, metals and organic carbon from drinking water.
The batch experiments were conducted to study the copper(II) removal by formaldehyde inactivated Cladosporium cladosporioides, Gliomastix murorum and Bjerkandera sp., at conditions of agitation speed of 150 rpm, temperature of 25 degrees C, biosorbent dose of 2 g l(-1) and contact time of 12h. It was found that, for each biomass, the optimum pH was 6.0 and the equilibrium establishing time was about 2h. Without acid or alkali treatment for improving adsorption properties, the experimental maximum copper(II) biosorptions were relatively high: 7.74 mg g(-1) for C. cladosporioides, 9.01 mg g(-1) for G. murorum, and 12.08 mg g(-1) for Bjerkandera sp.. The biosorption data of all the dead fungal biomasses were quite fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second-order kinetic model; first-order Lagergren kinetic model gave good adjustment to the data of Bjerkandera sp. but did not fit the data of C. cladosporioides and G. murorum very well. These fungal biomasses exhibited relatively high capacity for the removal of copper(II) from aqueous solutions.