Equilibration rates and negative absolute temperatures for ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

@article{Rapp2010EquilibrationRA,
  title={Equilibration rates and negative absolute temperatures for ultracold atoms in optical lattices.},
  author={{\'A}kos Rapp and Stephan Mandt and Achim Rosch},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2010},
  volume={105 22},
  pages={
          220405
        }
}
As highly tunable interacting systems, cold atoms in optical lattices are ideal to realize and observe negative absolute temperatures, T<0. We show theoretically that, by reversing the confining potential, stable superfluid condensates at finite momentum and T<0 can be created with low entropy production for attractive bosons. They may serve as "smoking gun" signatures of equilibrated T<0. For fermions, we analyze the time scales needed to equilibrate to T<0. For moderate interactions, the… 

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