Modeling mucosal cell-associated HIV type 1 transmission in vitro.
- Deborah J Anderson
- The Journal of infectious diseases
The Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 protein that can induce the lytic cycle in latently infected cells is a transcription factor partially homologous to Fos and binds not only the canonical TPA (tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate)-responsive element (TRE) site but also sequences deviating from the TRE consensus sequence. Thus, expression of cellular genes regulated by AP-1, including the autoregulated AP-1 family, should be affected by BZLF1. However, induction of only Fos by BZLF1 was observed in a gel mobility shift assay using an oligonucleotide probe containing the TRE sequence and the antibody against Fos protein. The c-jun promoter, which contains a binding site for Jun and BZLF1, was stimulated by Jun but not by BZLF1. Furthermore, BZLF1 inhibited stimulation of the c-jun promoter by Jun. Jun together with Fos effectively activated the collagenase promoter that contains a single TRE site. However, not only was BZLF1 unable to stimulate the collagenase promoter, but it also inhibited activation by Jun and Fos. On the other hand, BZLF1 stimulated constructs containing multimeric binding sites. These results and those of previous studies of Epstein-Barr virus promoters regulated by BZLF1 indicate that BZLF1 requires adjacent multiple DNA-binding sites for cooperative interaction to function as a transactivator and to repress the activation by Jun of promoters containing a single TRE site. This suggests that BZLF1 evolved to confer distinct regulatory patterns upon viral target genes and cellular AP-1-responsive genes.