Epstein–Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight

@article{Pierson2005EpsteinBarrVS,
  title={Epstein–Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight},
  author={Duane L. Pierson and Raymond P. Stowe and Terry M Phillips and Desmond James Lugg and Satish K. Mehta},
  journal={Brain, Behavior, and Immunity},
  year={2005},
  volume={19},
  pages={235-242}
}

Latent virus reactivation in astronauts on the international space station

The data confirm that astronauts undertaking long-duration spaceflight experience both increased latent viral reactivation and changes in diurnal trajectory of salivary cortisol concentrations, which indicate that the effects of the microgravity environment on the immune system are increased with prolonged exposure and highlight the potential increased risk of infection among crewmembers.

Multiple latent viruses reactivate in astronauts during Space Shuttle missions

Herpes Virus Reactivation in Astronauts During Spaceflight and Its Application on Earth

Larger quantities and increased frequencies for these viruses were found during spaceflight as compared to before or after flight samples and their matched healthy controls, and coincided with the immune system dysregulation observed in astronauts from shuttle and ISS missions.

Reactivation of latent herpes viruses in cosmonauts during a soyuz taxi mission

The hypothesis tested by this project is that space flight increases the incidence and duration of herpes virus reactivation and shedding in saliva and that an immune response may not be necessary for reactivation.

Characterization of Epstein–Barr virus reactivation in a modeled spaceflight system

A modeled spaceflight environment was used to evaluate the influence of radiation and microgravity on EBV reactivation and it was suggested that EBV infection provided protection against apoptosis and cell death.

Asymptomatic reactivation and shed of infectious varicella zoster virus in astronauts

Not only was the detection of salivary VZV DNA associated with spaceflight validated, but also infectious virus was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts, the first demonstration of shed of infectious VzV in the absence of disease.

Zoster patients on earth and astronauts in space share similar immunologic profiles.

Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation In Astronauts

Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in critically ill immunocompetent patients

EBV DNA is detected in blood of diverse ICU patients with ≥ 5 days of stay and that it is associated with morbidity and mortality and the role of polyviral reactivations is determined.
...

References

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Incidence of Epstein-Barr virus in astronaut saliva during spaceflight.

The increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.

Stress‐induced subclinical reactivation of varicella zoster virus in astronauts

Results indicate that VZV can reactivate subclinically in healthy individuals after non‐surgical stress, and not in elderly individuals, organ transplant recipients, and patients with cancer and AIDS.

Reactivation and shedding of cytomegalovirus in astronauts during spaceflight.

Results demonstrate thatCMV reactivation occurred in astronauts before spaceflight and indicate that CMV may further reactivate during spaceflight.

Stress-Induced Reactivation of Epstein-Barr Virus in Astronauts

Results indicate that stress reactivates EBV prior to flight and suggest that acute lytic replication of EBV occurs during spaceflight.

Elevated Stress Hormone Levels Relate to Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in Astronauts

Findings indicate that physical and psychological stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

Quantitative Analysis of Epstein-Barr Virus Load by Using a Real-Time PCR Assay

The results indicate that the real-time PCR assay is useful for diagnosing symptomatic EBV infection and for monitoring the virus load.

Detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction in blood and tissue biopsies from patients with Sjogren's syndrome

The results suggest that EBV, which has a normal site of latency in a small number of SG epithelial cells, may be reactivated in SS patients and provide a target for immune attack.

Epstein-Barr virus infection.

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The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) was discovered 36 years ago by electron microscopy of cells cultured from Burkitt's lymphoma tissue by Epstein, Achong, and Barr and has been found in tissues from other cancers, including T-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease.

Immune changes during long‐duration missions

Immune changes during space flights in excess of two weeks have been almost exclusively studied by Russian investigators and studies of cosmonauts during spaceflight have shown that IgG levels were unchanged, whereas IgA and IgM levels were sometimes increased.