Protective antibody levels are critical for protection from severe enterovirus 71 infection. However, little is known about the specificities and functional properties of the enterovirus 71-specific antibodies induced by natural infection in humans. Here we characterize 191 plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies from three enterovirus 71-infected children, each of whom shows a distinct serological response. Of the 84 enterovirus 71-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies that target the rims and floor of the capsid canyon exhibit broad and potent activities at the nanogram level against viruses isolated in 1998-2016. We also find a subset of infected children whose enterovirus 71-specific antibodies are focused on the 3- and 2-fold plateau epitopes localized at the margin of pentamers, and this type of antibody response is associated with lower serum titers against recently circulating strains. Our data provide new insights into the enterovirus 71-specific antibodies induced by natural infection at the serological and clonal levels.Enterovirus 71 is a leading cause of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina. Here, the authors characterize a large panel of plasmablast-derived IgG mAbs that target the capsid of EV71 to identify neutralizing antibodies induced by natural infection.