Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment

  title={Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment},
  author={Michael A. Bishop and J. D. Trout},
Bishop and Trout here present a unique and provocative new approach to epistemology (the theory of human knowledge and reasoning). Their approach aims to liberate epistemology from the scholastic debates of standard analytic epistemology, and treat it as a branch of the philosophy of science. The approach is novel in its use of cost-benefit analysis to guide people facing real reasoning problems and in its framework for resolving normative disputes in psychology. Based on empirical data, Bishop… Expand
Reasoning, Normativity, and Experimental Philosophy
I The development of modern science, on one widely held view, has come largely through naturalizing domains of inquiry that were historically parts of philosophy. Theories based on speculation aboutExpand
Applied Epistemology: Prospects and Problems
Surprisingly few attempts have been made to apply theories in normative epistemology to concrete questions about epistemic policies and practices, in spite of the fact that many of today's mostExpand
Psychology and the goals of epistemology
This thesis defends the controversial view that results taken from psychology should be used by epistemologists developing their accounts, methodological naturalism, and describes how it should beExpand
Building on Nietzsche's Prelude: Reforming Epistemology for the Philosophy of the Future
Drawing from the "anti-philosophies" of Nietzsche and Wittgenstein, and deploying a methodology which synthesizes critical theory with evolutionary psychology and contemporary cognitive science, ourExpand
Applied Cognitive Psychology and the “Strong Replacement” of Epistemology by Normative Psychology
Applied Cognitive Psychology (ACP) is normative in the sense that (1) it aims to make recommendations for improving human judgment; (2) it aims to have a practical impact on morally and politicallyExpand
The philosophical legacy of Meehl (1978): confirmation theory, theory quality, and scientific epistemology
Abstract The reach and impact of Paul Meehl’s work is extraordinary. Focusing on his “Theoretical Risks and Tabular Asterisks”, I trace three consequences of his findings. The first is the influenceExpand
In this paper, I examine and then criticize the two main assumptions underlying Stephen Stich's Epistemic Pragmatism and its resulting consequentialist approach to reasoning strategy assessment, thatExpand
Pragmatic encroachment in accounts of epistemic excellence
  • A. Baril
  • Philosophy, Computer Science
  • Synthese
  • 2012
It is believed that practical considerations bear on whether a disposition is an epistemic excellence, and a practical condition on epistemic Excellence is proposed that is roughly analogous to theractical condition on knowledge proposed by Fantl and McGrath. Expand
The epistemology of scientific evidence
It is shown how a dialogue interface of argument from expert opinion provides the argumentation component of the ESE, which enables internal scientific knowledge to be translated over into a wider arena in which individual nonexpert citizens and groups can make use of it. Expand
Second Thoughts and the Epistemological Enterprise
What happens when we have second thoughts about the epistemic standing of our beliefs, when we stop to check on beliefs which we have already formed or hypotheses which we have under consideration?Expand


The fragmentation of reason : preface to a pragmatic theory of cognitive evaluation
From Descartes to Popper, philosophers have criticized and tried to improve the strategies of reasoning invoked in science and in everyday life. In recent years leading cognitive psychologists haveExpand
Without good reason : the rationality debate in philosophy and cognitive science
Are humans rational? Various experiments performed over the last several decades have been interpreted as showing that humans are irrational-we make significant and consistent errors in logicalExpand
Normativity and Epistemic Intuitions
In this paper we propose to argue for two claims. The first is that a sizable group of epistemological projects-a group which includes much of what has been done in epistemology in the analyticExpand
Could man be an irrational animal?
  • S. Stich
  • Philosophy, Mathematics
  • Synthese
  • 2004
Aristotle thought man was a rational animal. From his time to ours, however, there has been a steady stream of writers who have dissented from this sanguine assessment. For Bacon, Hume, Freud, or D.Expand
Measuring the intentional world : realism, naturalism, and quantitative methods in the behavioral sciences
Scientific realism has been advanced as an interpretation of the natural sciences but never the behavioural sciences. This exciting book introduces a novel version of scientific realism-MeasuredExpand
Heuristics and Biases: When Predictions Fail: The Dilemma of Unrealistic Optimism
One of the most robust findings in the psychology of prediction is that people's predictions tend to be optimistically biased. By a number of metrics and across a variety of domains, people have beenExpand
Scientific Explanation And The Sense Of Understanding*
Scientists and laypeople alike use the sense of understanding that an explanation conveys as a cue to good or correct explanation. Although the occurrence of this sense or feeling of understanding isExpand
The Fragility of Reason
Steven Stich's The Fragmentation of Reason will get the adrenalin pumping. At least it will for-reactionaries (like me) who cling to truth, reason and knowledge as cognitive values. Steve Stich setsExpand
Problems of knowledge : a critical introduction to epistemology
Introduction: The Very Idea of a Theory of Knowledge 1. The Standard Analysis 2. Knowledge without Evidence 3. Two Ideals 4. Unstable Knowledge 5. Agrippa's Trilemma 6. Experience and Reality 7.Expand
Inevitable Illusions: How Mistakes of Reason Rule Our Minds
Massimo Piatelli-Palmarini. Inevitable Illusions: How Mistakes of Reason Rule our Minds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994. Imagine that the United States must prepare for the outbreak of a rareExpand