Episodic-like memory during cache recovery by scrub jays

  title={Episodic-like memory during cache recovery by scrub jays},
  author={Nicola S. Clayton and Anthony Dickinson},
The recollection of past experiences allows us to recall what a particular event was, and where and when it occurred,, a form of memory that is thought to be unique to humans. It is known, however, that food-storing birds remember the spatial location and contents of their caches. Furthermore, food-storing animals adapt their caching and recovery strategies to the perishability of food stores, which suggests that they are sensitive to temporal factors. Here we show that scrub jays (Aphelocoma… 

Elements of episodic-like memory in animals.

Results show that jays form integrated memories for the location, content and time of caching, which fulfils Tulving's behavioural criteria for episodic memory and is thus termed 'episodic-like'.

Scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) remember the relative time of caching as well as the location and content of their caches.

Two experiments examined whether food-storing scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) could remember the relative time of caching as well as what type of food was cached in each cache site.

Evidence of episodic-like memory in cuttlefish

Scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) form integrated memories of the multiple features of caching episodes.

It is argued that the jays formed an integrated memory for the location and time of caching of particular foods in visuospatially distinct and trial-unique caches.

Keeping track of time: evidence for episodic-like memory in great apes

Chimpanzees’ and bonobos’ performance in the temporal encoding task was age-dependent, following an inverted U-shaped distribution, and a memory task that required no temporal encoding was included, showing that apes remember in an integrated fashion what, where and when an event happened.

What–Where–When memory in magpies (Pica pica)

It is shown that magpies can remember which food item they hoarded where, and when, even if the food items only differ from each other in their colour and are dispersed throughout a continuous caching substrate.

Episodic-like Memory in the Rat

Do Clark’s nutcrackers demonstrate what-where-when memory on a cache-recovery task?

The differential recovery after the long RI demonstrates that nutcrackers may have the capacity for WWW memory during this task, but it is not clear why it was influenced by RI duration.



Memory for the content of caches by scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

Jays remember the specific foods they cache and recover by a mnemonic process that cannot be explained in terms of simple associations between the foods and their cache locations.

Episodic and declarative memory: Role of the hippocampus

A realignment of organization of memory is suggested such that declarative memory is defined in terms of features and properties that are common to both episodic and semantic memory, which gives greater precision to the Vargha‐Khadem et al. study.

Motivational control of caching behaviour in the scrub jay,Aphelocoma coerulescens

The results suggest that caching behaviour is controlled by both the feeding system and an independent caching system, and that this control is mediated by the incentive value of the specific items rather than by a general motivational state.

How marsh tits find their hoards: the roles of site preference and spatial memory.

Marsh tits (Parus palustris) store single food items in scattered locations and recover them hours or days later, and during recovery they are more likely to visit a site of any preference value if they have stored a seed there that day than if they had not.

Returns to emptied cache sites by Clark's nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana: a puzzle revisited

It is demonstrated that nutcrackers can discriminate good sites from emptied ones, probably by either 'tagging' the location by remembering it or by forgetting it, as well as being able to revisit old cache sites emptied earlier in recovery.

Caching behaviour by eastern woodrats, Neotoma floridana, in relation to food perishability

Caching decisions by grey squirrels: a test of the handling time and perishability hypotheses

It is suggested that the perishability of seeds exerts a greater influence than handling time on the grey squirrel's decision to cache acorns, and predicts the predictions for caching behaviour that follow from these two hypotheses.

Differential memory for different cache sites by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana)

When Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) recover their caches, accuracy declines as recovery proceeds. Two experiments investigated this phenomenon. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated

Food Perishability and Inventory Management: A Comparison of Three Caching Strategies

A numerical computer simulation is developed to evaluate three cache management strategies under various conditions of food availability and duration of the cache use period and indicates that animals should adjust the composition of their cache to reflect food perishability.