Episodic and declarative memory: Role of the hippocampus

  title={Episodic and declarative memory: Role of the hippocampus},
  author={Endel Tulving and Hans Joachim Markowitsch},
The fact that medial temporal lobe structures, including the hippocampus, are critical for declarative memory is firmly established by now. The understanding of the role that these structures play in declarative memory, however, despite great efforts spent in the quest, has eluded investigators so far. Given the existing scenario, novel ideas that hold the promise of clarifying matters should be eagerly sought. One such idea was recently proposed by Vargha‐Khadem and her colleagues (Science… 

On the role of the hippocampus in the acquisition, long-term retention and semanticisation of memory

A coherent view of what makes a task hippocampallydependent at acquisition and how this relates to its long-term fate is formulated and conceptualising episodic and semantic memory as representing points on a continuum of memory types appears viable.

The Status of Semantic and Episodic Memory in Amnesia

Evidence is reviewed suggesting that (a) amnesia disrupts recollection- based mechanisms more so than familiarity-based mechanisms and that (b) when amnesic patients are encouraged to rely on their feelings of familiarity, their performance on recognition tasks can be enhanced.

Investigating the role of the hippocampal formation in episodic and spatial memory

This thesis aims to explore the two dominant functional roles of the hippocampal formation, in the relational encoding of episodic memory and the neural representation of allocentric space, using a

Semantic Memory and the Hippocampus: Revisiting, Reaffirming, and Extending the Reach of Their Critical Relationship

It is argued that semantic memory, like episodic memory, is a highly flexible, (re)constructive, relational and multimodal system, and that there is value in developing methods and materials that fully capture this depth and richness to facilitate comparisons to episodi memory.

Episodic memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal–anterior thalamic axis

By utilizing new information from both clinical and experimental studies with animals, the anatomy underlying anterograde amnesia has been reformulated and places critical importance on the efferents from the hippocampus via the fornix to the diencephalon.

The Object Recognition Task: A New Proposal for the Memory Performance Study

In the last few decades, there has been extensive research in the cognitive neurophysiology of learning and memory. Most relevant experimental studies were focused on the possible role of

The medial temporal lobe.

This analysis draws on studies of human memory impairment and animal models of memory impairment, as well as neurophysiological and neuroimaging data, to show that this system is principally concerned with memory and operates with neocortex to establish and maintain long-term memory.

Functional MRI Studies on Human Declarative Memory

Declarative memory is defined as the conscious memory for facts and events. The medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, i.e., the hippocampus with the adjacent parahippocampal region, are considered



Memory for items and memory for relations in the procedural/declarative memory framework.

This paper considers the nature of memory for items and ofMemory for relations among items, within the context of the procedural/declarative framework, providing the foundation necessary to analyse the basis for item-specific implicit memory phenomena.

Some Comments on the Special Cognitive Functions Claimed for the Hippocampus

Childhood amnesia and distinctions between forms of memory: A comment on Wood, Brown, and Felton

Two functional components of the hippocampal memory system

It is proposed that neocortical association areas maintain shortterm memories for specific items and events prior to hippocampal processing as well as providing the final repositories of long-term memory.

The hippocampal memory indexing theory.

It is asserted that the reactivation of the stored hippocampal memory index will serve to also reactivate the associated unique array of neocortical areas and thus will result in a memorial experience.

How Does the Brain Organize Memories?

Three patients who had very specific loss of their hippocampi within the first few years of life showed a severe loss of episodic memory, but that their semantic memory was intact, and Eichenbaum explains what these results mean for the classification of different types of memory.

A theory of hippocampal function in memory

  • E. Rolls
  • Biology, Psychology
  • 1996
Key hypotheses are that the CA3 pyramidal cells operate as a single autoassociation network to store new episodic information as it arrives via a number of specialized preprocessing stages from many different association areas of the cerebral cortex, and that the dentate granule cell/mossy fiber system is important particularly during learning to help to produce a new pattern of firing in theCA3 cells for each episode.

Functional organization of the hippocampal memory system.

The findings support the view that the cortex maintains various forms of memory representation and that hippocampal structures extend the persistence and mediate the organization of these codings.

Declarative memory: insights from cognitive neurobiology.

The basic properties of declarative memory in human beings can be viewed as evolving from a capacity for organized memory representation and flexible memory expression in animals.

Memory consolidation and the medial temporal lobe: a simple network model.

  • P. AlvarezL. Squire
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1994
Evidence that the medial temporal lobe memory system is involved in a process of consolidation is reviewed: memories are initially dependent on this system but gradually become established in other areas of the brain.