Epinephrine improves 24-hour survival in a swine model of prolonged ventricular fibrillation demonstrating that early intraosseous is superior to delayed intravenous administration.

BACKGROUND Vasopressors administered IV late during resuscitation efforts fail to improve survival. Intraosseous (IO) access can provide a route for earlier administration. We hypothesized that IO epinephrine after 1 minute of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (an "optimal" IO scenario) after 10 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac… CONTINUE READING