Long-term outcomes of epilepsy surgery in tuberous sclerosis complex
PURPOSE To discuss neuropsychological outcome and candidate of epilepsy surgery for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHODS To retrospectively analyze clinical data of 25 patients with TSC and epilepsy who underwent epilepsy surgery between 2001 and 2007. Seizure reduction was analyzed at 1-year (1FU), 2-year (2FU), and 5-year (5FU) follow-up visits after surgery, and outcomes of intelligence quotient (IQ) and quality of life (QOL) were evaluated at 2FU. RESULTS Resective procedures included 14 tuber resections, 9 lobectomies, and 2 tuber resections and lobectomies. Corpus callosotomies (CCTs) were performed as the adjunctive approach in eight cases with low IQ and behavioral problems. The percentages of seizure-free cases were 72% at 1FU, 60% at 2FU, and 54.5% at 5FU, and the factors predicting seizure freedom included the course of seizures and ages of patients. Significant improvement was found in performance IQ in patients with preoperative low IQ or CCT. Significant improvement in mean QOL score was observed in all patients, especially patients with preoperative low IQ and CCT but postoperative seizure freedom. CONCLUSION To be surgical candidates, patients with TSC and epilepsy should have identified epileptogenic tubers, and candidates should include patients with low IQ and multiple epileptogenic tubers. Satisfactory seizure control was often achieved with early operation, whereas improved QOL was observed frequently in postoperative seizure-free patients. CCT could be performed as an adjunctive approach to resective operation for TSC patients with epilepsy and low IQ and render improvement of performance IQ and QOL.