Epigenetic regulation in neural stem cell differentiation

  title={Epigenetic regulation in neural stem cell differentiation},
  author={Berry Juliandi and Masahiko Abematsu and Kinichi Nakashima},
The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of three major cell types – neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes – which differentiate from common multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs). This differentiation process is regulated spatiotemporally during the course of mammalian development. It is becoming apparent that epigenetic regulation is an important cell‐intrinsic program, which can interact with transcription factors and environmental cues to modulate the differentiation of NSCs. This… 
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This work focuses on the recent advance in the understanding of epigenetic regulation on orderly generation of diverse neural cell types in the mammalian nervous system, an important aspect of neural development and regenerative medicine.
Epigenetic regulation of neural stem cell fate during corticogenesis
Mechanisms of astrocytogenesis in the mammalian brain
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The recent outcomes and advances in understanding the histone modifying enzymes and non-coding RNAs during neural cell-type specification of stem cells are discussed.
System approaches reveal the molecular networks involved in neural stem cell differentiation
This study modeled the dynamics of neural cell interactions in a systemic approach by mining the high-throughput genomic and proteomic data, and identified 8615 genes that are involved in various biological processes and functions with significant changes during the differentiation processes.
Neuroinflammation on the Epigenetics of Neural Stem Cells
The effect of neuroinflammation in N SCs is described and whether the inflammatory mediators can epige‐ netically affect the capacity of NSCs and alter their proliferation and differentiation ability is discussed.
Neural Stem Cell Niches in Health and Diseases
A model where all the NSC niches in the CNS may be connected in a functional network using the threads of the meningeal net as tracks is proposed, which leaves open the question of whether and how these structures communicate throughout long distance.


Epigenetic regulation of neural cell differentiation plasticity in the adult mammalian brain
It is reported that oligodendrocytes, which do not express MBDs, can transdifferentiate into astrocycles both in vitro (cytokine stimulation) and in vivo (ischemic injury) through the activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, suggesting that differentiation plasticity in neural cells is regulated by cell-intrinsic epigenetic mechanisms in collaboration with ambient cell-extrinsics cues.
Chromatin remodeling in neural development and plasticity.
Histone deacetylase inhibition-mediated neuronal differentiation of multipotent adult neural progenitor cells.
It is suggested that VPA promotes neuronal fate and inhibits glial fate simultaneously through the induction of neurogenic transcription factors including NeuroD, which resulted in the induction and suppression of neuronal and glial differentiation, respectively.
Multiple Routes to Astrocytic Differentiation in the CNS
It is shown that there are two distinct routes to initiate astrocytic commitment in multipotent CNS precursors and activation of janus kinase–signal transducers and activators of transcription and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways with differential kinetics in these cells.
Committed neuronal precursors confer astrocytic potential on residual neural precursor cells.
Spatiotemporal Recapitulation of Central Nervous System Development by Murine Embryonic Stem Cell‐Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells
It is demonstrated that the spatiotemporal regulation of central nervous system (CNS) development in vitro is recapitulate by using a neurosphere‐based culture system of embryonic stem (ES) cell‐derived NS/PCs, which can be used to obtain specific neurons from ES cells, is a simple and powerful tool for investigating the underlying mechanisms of CNS development, and is applicable to regenerative treatment for neurological disorders.
The development of neural stem cells
A rush of papers proclaiming adult stem cell plasticity has fostered the notion that there is essentially one stem cell type that, with the right impetus, can create whatever progeny the authors' heart, liver or other vital organ desires, but studies aimed at understanding the role of stem cells during development have led to a different view — that stem cells are restricted regionally and temporally, and thus not all stem cell types are equivalent.