Epigenetic programming of the stress response in male and female rats by prenatal restraint stress

@article{Darnaudry2008EpigeneticPO,
  title={Epigenetic programming of the stress response in male and female rats by prenatal restraint stress},
  author={Muriel Darnaud{\'e}ry and Stefania Maccari},
  journal={Brain Research Reviews},
  year={2008},
  volume={57},
  pages={571-585}
}
Exposure to hostile conditions results in a series of coordinated responses aimed at enhancing the probability of survival. The activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis plays a pivotal role in the stress response. While the short-term activation of the HPA axis allows adaptive responses to the challenge, in the long run this can be devastating for the organism. In particular, life events occurring during the perinatal period have strong long-term effects on the… 
Behavioural and Neuroendocrine Consequences of Prenatal Stress in Rat
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TLDR
The aim of this review is to examine the impacts of prenatal stress on developmental anatomy of the brain, particularly focusing on the relevant emotional and behavioural outcomes within the context of current data obtained from experimental animals.
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TLDR
The results showed that prenatal stress is associated with the demethylation of the CRH promoter, and leads to anxiety-like behaviors in adolescent life stages, as well as hyper-responsiveness of the HPA axis.
Long-term effects of prenatal stress: Changes in adult cardiovascular regulation and sensitivity to stress
TLDR
Original data are presented indicating that prenatal psychological stress does not induce in the rat adult offspring changes of plasma corticosterone levels, cardiac autonomic modulation, and circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity at rest, but prenatally stressed rats--when further stimulated in adulthood--exhibit prolonged adrenocortical stress responsivity.
Prenatal Restraint Stress Generates Two Distinct Behavioral and Neurochemical Profiles in Male and Female Rats
TLDR
A pronounced gender difference in the effects of PRS on anxiety, spatial learning, and a series of neurobiological parameters classically associated with hippocampus-dependent behaviors is uncovered, suggesting that the epigenetic changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early environmental challenges are critically sex-dependent and that the behavioral outcome may diverge in males and females.
Long-term effects of early life stress exposure: Role of epigenetic mechanisms.
TLDR
Experimental studies aimed to investigate hormonal, functional, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the stress response during early-life programming think these studies might prove useful for the identification of novel pharmacological targets for more effective treatments of mental disorders.
Stress Response and Perinatal Reprogramming: Unraveling (Mal)adaptive Strategies
TLDR
It is proposed that reprogramming mechanisms may underlie the reorganization of excitatory neurotransmission in the short- and long-term response to stressful stimuli.
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