Epigenetic Dynamics of Imprinted X Inactivation During Early Mouse Development

@article{Okamoto2004EpigeneticDO,
  title={Epigenetic Dynamics of Imprinted X Inactivation During Early Mouse Development},
  author={Ikuhiro Okamoto and Arie Pieter Otte and C. David Allis and Danny Reinberg and Edith Heard},
  journal={Science},
  year={2004},
  volume={303},
  pages={644 - 649}
}
The initiation of X-chromosome inactivation is thought to be tightly correlated with early differentiation events during mouse development. Here, we show that although initially active, the paternal X chromosome undergoes imprinted inactivation from the cleavage stages, well before cellular differentiation. A reversal of the inactive state, with a loss of epigenetic marks such as histone modifications and polycomb proteins, subsequently occurs in cells of the inner cell mass (ICM), which give… 
Genomic imprinting and epigenetic control of development.
TLDR
As model systems for epigenetic regulation, genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation have identified and elucidated the numerous regulatory mechanisms that function throughout the genome during development.
Imprinted X inactivation and reprogramming in the preimplantation mouse embryo.
TLDR
A picture is emerging whereby initial epigenetic asymmetry between the two parental X chromosomes is reprogrammed in a lineage specific manner resulting in a switch from imprinted to random inactivation in embryonic derivatives.
The dynamics of imprinted X inactivation during preimplantation development in mice
In the mouse, there are two forms of X chromosome inactivation (XCI), random XCI in the fetus and imprinted paternal XCI, which is limited to the extraembryonic tissues. While the mechanism of random
Recent advances in X-chromosome inactivation.
  • E. Heard
  • Biology
    Current opinion in cell biology
  • 2004
Chromatin modifications during X-chromosome inactivation in female mammals
TLDR
In the present review, the dynamics of modifications occurring during embryonic inactivation, their distribution over the inactive X-chromosome, interaction, and the role in establishing and maintening the inactive state are discussed.
Reactivation of the inactive X chromosome in development and reprogramming
TLDR
Recent advances in the understanding of Xi reactivation during development and reprogramming are reviewed and potential clinical applications are illustrated.
X‐chromosome inactivation in development and cancer
Xist-dependent imprinted X inactivation and the early developmental consequences of its failure
TLDR
It is found that the initiation of imprinted X-chromosome inactivation absolutely requires Xist and the expression dynamics of X-linked genes depends on the strain and parent of origin as well as on the location along the X chromosome, particularly at the first 'entry' sites of Xist.
Regulation of X-chromosome inactivation by the X-inactivation centre
TLDR
The recent discovery of the plasticity of the inactive state during early development, or during cloning, and induced pluripotency have contributed to the X chromosome becoming a gold standard in reprogramming studies.
Dynamic changes in paternal X-chromosome activity during imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in mice
TLDR
It is shown that silencing of some X-chromosomal regions occurs outside of the usual time window and that escape from X inactivation can be highly lineage specific.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES
X-Chromosome inactivation in cloned mouse embryos.
TLDR
It is suggested that the epigenetic marks imposed on the X chromosomes during gametogenesis, responsible for normal imprinted X inactivation in the TE, are functionally equivalent to the marksimposed on the chromosomes during somatic X in activation.
Mammalian embryonic development – insights from studies on the X chromosome
  • M. Monk
  • Biology
    Cytogenetic and Genome Research
  • 2002
TLDR
This paper reviews early studies on the cycle of changes of X chromosome activity in different lineages of the developing female mouse embryo to see how much was learned about mammalian development from early Studies on the X chromosome.
Mouse Xist expression begins at zygotic genome activation and is timed by a zygotic clock
TLDR
It is demonstrated that Xist expression begins at the G2‐phase of 2‐cell female embryos, earlier than previously reported and at the same time of the major wave of zygotic genome activation (ZGA), suggesting the existence of aZygotic clock involved in the regulation of the transcription of this imprinted gene.
X-chromosome inactivation in XX androgenetic mouse embryos surviving implantation.
TLDR
This finding supports the hypothesis that in fertilized female embryos, the maternal X chromosome remains active until the blastocyst stage because of a rigid imprint that prevents inactivation, whereas the paternal X chromosome is preferentially inactivated in extra-embryonic tissues owing to lack of such imprint.
Sequential X chromosome inactivation coupled with cellular differentiation in early mouse embryos
TLDR
It is proposed that X chromosome differentiation is linked to cellular differentiation, occurring at different times in different cell populations as they ‘depart’ or terminally differentiate from a pluripotent fetal ‘stem line’, and it is reported here that this is the case.
Preferential inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome in the extraembryonic membranes of the mouse
TLDR
In an effort to determine the embryonic stage at which the X chromosome initiates differentiation in famale mouse embryos heterozygous for Cattanach's translocaton, it was found that the mosaic composition was consistently biased in extraembryonic membranes, whereas it was not necessarily so in the embryonic body.
...
...