Signaling in the Auditory System: Implications in Hair Cell Regeneration and Hearing Function.
The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate is a potent antioxidant. Here, we describe the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on T cell differentiation and osteoclast differentiation in an animal model of arthritis. Mice with collagen-induced arthritis were injected intraperitoneally with epigallocatechin-3-gallate, 3 times/wk after the primary immunization. Surface markers of T helper 17 cells and regulatory T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to evaluate the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on cell signaling in the collagen-induced arthritis model. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate decreased the arthritis index and showed protective effects against joint destruction in collagen-induced arthritis mice. The expression of cytokines, oxidative stress proteins, and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, 705 and 727, were significantly less in mice treated with epigallocatechin-3-gallate than it was in controls. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduced the expression of osteoclast markers in vitro and in vivo relative to the control, and the antiosteoclastic activity was observed in epigallocatechin-3-gallate-treated, interferon-γ knockout mice. The proportion of forkhead box protein 3-positive regulatory T cells was increased in the spleens of mice treated with epigallocatechin-3-gallate compared with control mice, whereas the proportion of T helper 17 cells was reduced. In vitro, the expression of nuclear respiratory factor 2, heme oxygenase-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase was increased significantly by epigallocatechin-3-gallate. We demonstrated that the administration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuated the symptoms of arthritis, inhibited osteoclastogenesis and T helper 17 cell activation, and increased the number of regulatory T cells. At the molecular level, the antiarthritic effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate may be due to induction of phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, nuclear respiratory factor 2, and heme oxygenase-1 and inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 activation.