Epidemiology of iodine deficiency

  title={Epidemiology of iodine deficiency},
  author={Eduardo Gaitan and John T. Dunn},
  journal={Trends in Endocrinology \& Metabolism},
  • E. Gaitan, J. Dunn
  • Published 1 July 1992
  • Medicine
  • Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism
[Disorders associated to chronic iodine deficiency].
In Brazil, the prevalence of iodine-deficiency disorders has been evaluated, periodically, with schoolchildren examined for goiter and Universal salt iodination was implemented in Brazil in the early fifties but recently the system was considered effective for the supply of iodine.
Goitrogens in the Environment
The role of iodine deficiency as an environmental determinant in the development of endemic goiter is firmly established but even in the presence of extreme iodine deficiency there is an unequal geographic distribution of goiter.
Fairly elevated incidence of goiter with marginally low urinary iodine in adolescents living in the north-western part of Tunisia
The results suggest that the actual prevention may not be adequate, or most likely that goitrogenic factors are to be looked for, especially in drinking water, since the majority of these adolescents drink no controlled water.
Evaluation and management of the child with hypothyroidism
To optimize neurocognitive outcome in infants with congenital hypothyroidism, treatment with levothyroxine should be started as soon as possible, preferably within the first 2 weeks of life, and to ensure normal growth and development as well as cognitive outcome.
The thyroid status of the Yanomamö Indians of southern Venezuela: 1992 update.
The Yanomamö have borderline iodine deficiency, associated in children with predictably higher serum T3 and TSH concentrations and a high prevalence of small goiters, which is similar to an iodine-replete Swedish population.
Iodine and Cognition in Young Adults: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial
The results did not support the hypothesis that iodine would facilitate cognition however, as there were consistent non-significant associations with iodine, both when comparing treatment groups and across all participants within examined time points.
Controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders Studies for Program Management in Sub-Saharan Africa BY
In resource poor settings appropriately trained palpators using the 1960 WHO definition of goitre remain optimal for estimating thyroid size until precision and cost of ultrasound has improved, and monitoring of process indicators needs to be an ongoing priority activity, separate from periodic evaluations of impact.
Urinary iodine concentration during pregnancy in an area of unstable dietary iodine intake in Switzerland
We prospectively investigated urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in pregnant women and in female, non-pregnant controls in the canton of Berne, Switzerland, in 1992. Mean UIC of pregnant women
Mild iodine deficiency during fetal/neonatal life and neuropsychological impairment in Tuscany
Mild iodine deficiency may impair the rate of motor response to perceptive stimuli, as assessed by measurement of reaction time, in the absence of general cognitive impairment, and the effects of exposure to iodine deficiency during fetal/neonatal life, in spite of correction in the early childhood, may persist longer.
Effects of Environmental Agents on Thyroid Function
A large number of agents in the environment, both naturally occurring and man-made, are known to interfere with thyroid gland morphology and function, posing the danger of thyroid disease (Table 1).


Iodine deficiency disorders in Europe.
Governments are urged to pass legislation and provide means for efficient iodination of salt wherever this is necessary to address a high prevalence of iodine deficiency in many European countries.
Maternal thyroxine and congenital hypothyroidism.
  • P. Larsen
  • Medicine
    The New England journal of medicine
  • 1989
The report of Vulsma et al. in this issue of the Journal demonstrates that the apparent normality of hypothyroid infants at birth can be reconciled with their profound abnormality if not treated very soon after birth.
Goitrogens in food and water.
  • E. Gaitan
  • Medicine
    Annual review of nutrition
  • 1990
Malnutrition and poor socioeconomic conditions, as for iodine deficiency, enhance the action of environmental goitrogens, and a coordinated multidisciplinary approach is essential to solving this public health problem.
Regional variations of iodine nutrition and thyroid function during the neonatal period in Europe.
A low iodine supply in newborn populations was accompanied by an elevated frequency of transient disorders of thyroid function in young infants, which explained the marked regional differences in iodine nutrition during the neonatal period in Europe.
Thyroid function in neonates from goitrous and nongoitrous iodine-sufficient areas.
It is indicated that neonates from goitrous iodine-sufficient areas have thyroid function similar to that of infants born in nongoitrous areas equally supplemented with iodine, and therefore, they are not more at risk to develop congenital hypothyroidism.
Defective thyroidal iodine concentration in protein-calorie malnutrition.
The results indicate defective thyroid iodine concentration in human PCM, but adequate hormone secretion, which leads to depletion of thyroid iodine stores.
Prevention and treatment of endemic iodine-deficiency goiter by iodination of a municipal water supply.
Iodination of the water was followed by a prompt and marked reduction in goiter prevalence, and by improvement in biochemical indices of iodine deficiency, which were followed by well tolerated by the population of Troina.