The spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) has become a significant problem worldwide; however, relevant data in children are limited. We performed a retrospective study to better understand the epidemiology of CRKp bloodstream infections at Beijing Children's Hospital. A total of 164 K. pneumoniae strains were collected from blood cultures between January 2011 and September 2014, of which 52 (31.7%) were CRKp strains. All 52 CRKp strains were multidrug resistant; 46 (88.5%) and 49 (94.2%) isolates were resistant to meropenem and imipenem, respectively. Low rates of resistance to amikacin (5.8%), levofloxacin (7.7%), and ciprofloxacin (15.4%) were observed. All isolates were susceptible to colistin. Among the tested carbapenem resistance genes, the predominant gene was blaNDM-1, detected in 28 (53.8%) isolates, followed by blaIMP-4 (19, 36.5%) and blaKPC-2 (4, 7.7%). Multilocus sequence typing identified 31 sequence types (STs), the most predominant of which was ST782 (9, 29.0%). All ST782 strains were New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) producing. Four novel STs (ST2010, ST2011, ST2012, and ST2013) and two novel alleles (phoE243 and tonB324) were also detected. Hematologic disease was the most common underlying disease (73.1%). All children received initial empirical therapy. A total of 59.6% (31/52) patients received inappropriate empirical therapy, and 45.2% (14/31) changed antimicrobial therapy after blood culture results were obtained. The overall mortality rate was 11.5%. In conclusion, we observed a high rate of CRKp isolates collected from blood cultures and the predominance of NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae among children from 2011 to 2014.