Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Uremia-Related Cardiovascular Disease.

@article{Tonelli2016EpidemiologyAM,
  title={Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Uremia-Related Cardiovascular Disease.},
  author={Marcello Tonelli and Siddharth Karumanchi and Ravi I. Thadhani},
  journal={Circulation},
  year={2016},
  volume={133 5},
  pages={518-36}
}
Patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are at 5- to 10-fold higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) than age-matched controls. Clinically, CVD in this population manifests as coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, stroke, or congestive heart failure. Beyond the traditional risk factors (eg, diabetes mellitus and hypertension), uremia-specific factors that arise from accumulating toxins also contribute to the pathogenesis of CVD. In this review, we… CONTINUE READING