Epicardial and endocardial electrophysiological guided thoracoscopic surgery for atrial fibrillation: a multidisciplinary approach of atrial fibrillation ablation in challenging patients.


INTRODUCTION Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with enlarged atria or previous pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) are challenging patients for catheter ablation. Thoracoscopic surgery is an effective treatment for these patients but comes at the cost of an increase in adverse events. Recently, electrophysiological (EP) guided approaches to thoracoscopic… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.02.043


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